Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 1944 - History

Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 1944 - History


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Battle of the Bulge

Sports

NCAA Football: Army Record: 9-0-0
Heisman Trophy: Leslie Horvath, ohio St., TB-Q points: 412
Stanley Cup: Montreal Canadiens vs. Chicago Blackhawks Series: 4-0
World Series: St. Louis Cardinals vs. St. Louis Browns Series: 4-2

Popular Movies

1. The Affairs of Susan
2. Along Came Jones
3.Anchors Aweigh -
4. And Now Tomorrow
5. Casanova Brown
6. Christmas in Connecticut
7. Diamond Horseshoe 8. Frenchman's Creek 9. God Is My Co-Pilot 10. Here Comes The Waves

Academy Awards

Best Picture: "Going My Way"
Best Director: Leo McCarey ..."Going My Way"
Best Actor: Bing Crosby ..."Going My Way"
Best Actress: Ingrid Bergman ... "Gaslight"

Nobel Prizes

Chemistry
HAHN, OTTO, Germany, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut, (now Max-Planck Institut) fŸr Chemie, Berlin-Dahlem, b. 1879, d. 1968: "for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"

Literature
JENSEN, JOHANNES VILHELM, Denmark, b. 1873, d. 1950: "for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style"

Peace
COMITƒ INTERNATIONAL DE LA CROIX-ROUGE (INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS)

Physiology or Medicine
The prize was awarded jointly to: ERLANGER, JOSEPH, U.S.A., Washington University, St. Louis, MO, b. 1874, d. 1965; and GASSER, HERBERT SPENCER, U.S.A., Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York, NY, b. 1888, d. 1963: "for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"

Physics
RABI, ISIDOR ISAAC, U.S.A., Columbia University, New York, NY, b. 1898, (in Rymanow, then Austria-Hungary) d. 1988: "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"

Pulitzer Prizes

Fiction: Martin Flavin ... "Journey in the Dark"
History: Merle Curti ... "The Growth of American Thought"
International Reporting: Daniel DeLuce ... "Associated Press"
National Reporting: Dewy L. Fleming ... "Baltimore Sun"
Public Service: "Omaha (NE) World Herald"


Historical Events on November 11

308 The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Maxentius and Licinius to be Augusti, while rival contender Constantine I is declared Caesar of Britain and Gaul.

Event of Interest

1158 Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa declares himself ruler of North Italy

    Otto van Wittelsbach chosen German king 4th Lateran Council (12th ecumenical council) opens in Rome Battle of Aleppo: Timur and his army defeat the forces of Sultan Faraj, Mameluke ruler of Egypt, 20,000 people reportedly massacred and a pyramid of their skulls built Oddo Colonna elected as Pope Martinus V

Historic Discovery

Papal Inauguration

    Duke of Alva's son Don Fredrik begins siege of Haarlem Turkey & Austria sign Treaty of Zsitva-Torok Mayflower Pilgrims make their first landing in America, at Provincetown Harbor, Massachusetts [1] Mayflower Compact signed by Pilgrims at Cape Cod, the 1st framework of government in the territory that is now the USA [N.S. Nov 21] Following pressure from Anglican bishop John Atherton, the Irish House of Commons passes "An Act for the Punishment for the Vice of Buggery". Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, impeached by the House of Lords on the evidence of John Pym, and imprisoned in the Tower of London he was later executed.

Event of Interest

1675 German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz demonstrates integral calculus for the first time to find the area under the graph of y = f(x) function

    Prince Willem III's invasion fleet sails to England A highway in Bronx is laid out, later renamed East 233rd Street

Event of Interest

    The F.H.C. Society, also known as the Flat Hat Club, was formed at Raleigh Tavern, Williamsburg, Virginia. It was the first college fraternity. Theresianische Military Academy opens in Vienna

Event of Interest

1775 Mohawk military leader Joseph Brant goes to London to solicit more support from the government and to persuade the Crown to address past Mohawk land grievances in exchange for their participation as allies in the impending war

    British Soldiers and Loyalists, allied with Iroquois and Seneca raiders, slaughter 40 in the "Cherry Valley Massacre" in central New York Chrysanthemums are introduced to England from China

Battle of Interest

1805 Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Dürenstein - 8000 French troops attempted to slow the retreat of a vastly superior Russian and Austrian force.

Historic Publication

1807 Washington Irving's Salmagundi periodical published - first to associate the name "Gotham" with New York City

    Cartagena Colombia declares independence from Spain Dresden surrenders to allied armies Chile declares war on Bolivia & Peru The Virginia Military Institute is founded in Lexington, Virginia. Alvan Clark patents telescope

Victory in Battle

1868 War of the Triple Alliance: Allied victory in the Battle of Avay leaves 3,000 Paraguayan soldiers dead, 600 wounded and the road to Asunción open

    Australian Bushranger and outlaw Ned Kelly is hanged at Melbourne Gaol Anarchist Haymarket Martyrs August Spies (b. 1855), Albert Parsons (b. 1848), Adolph Fischer (b. 1858) and George Engel (b. 1836) are executed. Construction of the Manchester Ship Canal starts at Eastham. Washington admitted as 42nd state of USA British Open Men's Golf, Musselburgh Links: Willie Park Jr wins his second Open title beats Andrew Kirkaldy by 5 in 36-hole playoff D McCree patents portable fire escape Bechuanaland becomes part of Cape Colony Jules Vandenpeereboom becomes Belgium's minister of War Samuel Pierpont Langley's Number 6 'heavier-than-air' aircraft model flies over 1,500 m (5,000 ft). Stuart/Rubens/Boyd-Jones' "Floradora" premieres in London

Event of Interest

    High Commissioner Prince George declares amnesty for all leaders of the insurrection that has been disturbing Crete during the recent months - but which never gained mass support Ethel Smyth's "Standrecht" premieres in Leipzig

The War's Over, But Don't Get Too Excited

1918 WWI Armistice signed by the Allies and Germany comes into effect and World War I hostilities end at 11am, "the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month"

    Pope Benedictus XV states Roman Catholics political and business views Great Britain's monument to her war dead, the Cenotaph in Whitehall, designed by Edwin Lutyens, unveiled The burials of unknown soldiers take place simultaneously in Westminster Abbey, London, and at the Arc de Triomphe, Paris

Event of Interest

1921 US President Warren G. Harding dedicates Tomb of Unknown Soldier at Arlington Cemetery

    Largest US flag displayed (150' X 90') expanded in 1939 (270' X 90') Eternal flame lit for the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier under the Arc de Triomphe in Paris Martin Beck Theater opens at 302 W 45th St NYC Palace of Legion of Honor dedicated in San Francisco Earnest Thalmann becomes chairman of German KPD

Music Recording

1925 Louis Armstrong and his Hot Five begin their first recording session

Scientific Discovery

1925 American scientist Robert A. Millikan announces discovery of cosmic rays

Appointment of Interest

1926 Future Baseball Hall of Fame second baseman Eddie Collins is released as Chicago White Sox player/manager replaced by another future HOF'er catcher Ray Schalk

    U.S. Route 66 is established from Chicago, Illinois to Santa Monica, California 2,448 miles (3,940 km) France's 5th government of Raymond Poincaré forms KXO-AM in El Centro CA begins radio transmissions WGL-AM in Ft Wayne IN begins radio transmissions WMT-AM in Cedar Rapids IA begins radio transmissions WOL-AM in Washington, D.C. begins radio transmissions

Historic Invention

1930 Patent number US1781541 is awarded to Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd for their invention of the Einstein refrigerator

    Cornerstones laid for Opera House & Veteran's Building in San Francisco "Great Black Blizzard" 1st of the great dust storms that created the dust bowl rips through South Dakota

Event of Interest

1933 Billie Holiday's second song and first hit, "Riffin' the Scotch", is released

    WOC-AM in Davenport Iowa splits from WHO-WOC & becomes KICK-AM Explorer 2 balloon sets altitude record of 72,000 feet over South Dakota German aircraft Messerschmidt ME-109V13 flies a new world air speed record for landplanes with piston engines of 610.95 km/h (379.62 mph) Nobel prize for physics awarded to American Clinton Joseph Davisson and Briton George Paget Thomson "for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals" German & Austrian Jewish suffer 1 billion Mark damage in nazi

Event of Interest

1939 Kate Smith first sings Irving Berlin's "God Bless America"

    Thousands of Paris students lay a wreath at the Grave of the Unknown Soldier Blizzard strikes midwestern US killing over 100 British Fleet Air Arm attack destroys half of Italian fleet at Taranto

Event of Interest

1942 745 French Jews deported to Auschwitz

    Germany completes its WWII occupation of France Jews in the Free Zone of France ordered to wear a yellow star of David Lt-general Kumakashi Harada becomes Japanese commander on Java Transport #45 departs with French Jews to Nazi-Germany

Event of Interest

1943 New York Yankees pitcher Spud Chandler wins AL MVP St. Louis Cardinals outfielder Stan Musial wins NL MVP

    US air raid on Rabaul, Papua New Guinea New York Rangers beat Detroit Red Wings, 5-2 to end NHL record 25 game winless streak (0-21-4) New York Knicks play their first Basketball Association of American (BAA) home game at Madison Square Garden lose, 78-68 to Chicago Stags in overtime

Film Premier

1947 "Gentlemen's Agreement" directed by Elia Karan and starring Gregory Peck and Dorothy McGuire premieres in New York (Best Picture 1948)

Event of Interest

1954 Publication of "Two Towers", 2nd volume of "Lord of the Rings", by J. R. R. Tolkien by George Allen and Unwin in London

    Demolition begins on cable car barn at California & Hyde, San Francisco "La Plume de Ma Tante" opens at Royale Theater NYC for 835 performances AL announces Kansas City will play AL record 52 night games in 1959 1st episode of "Rocky & His Friends" airs Seals Stadium in San Francisco, demolished

Event of Interest

1961 Molotov, Malenkov and Kaganovitsj expelled from USSR's communist party

    Stalingrad renamed Volgograd "Catch-22" by Joseph Heller is published by Simon and Schuster in New York Kuwait's National Assembly ratifies the Constitution of Kuwait

The Beatles on Ed Sullivan

1963 Brian Epstein & Ed Sullivan sign a 3 show contract for The Beatles

    Murray Schisgal's "Luv" premieres in NYC Rhodesian PM Ian Smith proclaims independence from Britain William Alfred's "Hogan's Goat" premieres in NYC Gemini 12 (Lovell & Aldrin) launched on 4-day flight Methodist Church & Evangelical United Brethren Church unite as United Methodist Church (USA) NASA launches spaceship Gemini 12

Event of Interest

1968 John Lennon and Yoko Ono appear nude on cover of "2 Virgins" album

    Maldives (in Indian Ocean) becomes a republic Ron Hill sets record 10-mile run (46:44) at Leicester England Beatles with Billy Preston release "Get Back" in UK

Event of Interest

1969 Jim Morrison arrested on an airplane by the FBI for drunkenness

Event of Interest

1971 Neil Simon's "Prisoner of Second Avenue" premieres in NYC

    Dow Jones Index moves above 1,000 for 1st time US Army turns over Long Bihn base to South Vietnamese army Rugby League World Cup, Stade de Gerland, Lyon, France: Australia and Great Britain draw 10-10 Great Britain awarded the Trophy Operatic soprano Maria Callas makes her final public appearance in Sapporo, Japan Angola gains independence from Portugal (National Day) Australian Prime Minister Gough Whitlam removed from office by Governor General Sir John Kerr - 1st elected PM removed in 200 yrs

Event of Interest

1975 Liberal leader Malcolm Fraser sworn in as caretaker Prime Minister of Australia after sacking of the Whitlam Government by Governor General John Kerr

    Wings release "Mull of Kintyre" & "Girl's School" Maumoon Abdul Gayoom becomes president of Maldives Boston Court issues occupancy permit for Cambridge Buddhist Center Crew of Soyuz 35 returns to Earth aboard Soyuz 37

Event of Interest

1980 NY Islanders' future Hockey Hall of Fame right wing Mike Bossy scores 4 goals in a 6-6 tie against visiting Minnesota North Stars

Event of Interest

1981 LA Dodgers starter Fernando Valenzuela becomes first MLB rookie to win a Cy Young Award Milwaukee Brewers' Rollie Fingers takes AL Award

    "Oh, Brother!" closes at ANTA Theater NYC after 3 performances 5th space shuttle mission: Columbia makes the first officially "operational" shuttle mission Gas explosion in Israeli army headquarters near Tyre kills 60 Joe Altobelli succeeds retiring Earl Weaver as Baltimore Orioles manager 1st US cruise missiles arrive in Great Britain

Event of Interest

1983 President Reagan became 1st US President to address Japanese legislature

    Australian cricket wicketkeeper/batsman Wayne Phillips scores 159 on Test debut vs Pakistan at WACA, Perth "Three Musketeers" opens at Broadway Theater NYC for 9 performances 1st AIDS theme TV movie - "An Early Frost" screens in US on NBC Challenger flies back to Kennedy Space Center via Davis-Monthan Air Force Base Yonkers is found guilty of segregating schools & housing Houston's Astro Mike Scott (18-10) wins NL Cy Young Award Suriname government proclaims gold purification "Roza" closes at Royale Theater NYC after 12 performances

Event of Interest

1987 Judge Anthony Kennedy nominated to Supreme Court

Event of Interest

1987 Boston Red Sox starter Roger Clemens wins back-to-back AL Cy Young Awards Philadelphia Phillies starter Steve Bedrosian takes NL Award

Event of Interest

1987 van Gogh's "Irises" sells for record $53.6 million at auction

    Football striker Mark Hughes plays for Wales and Bayern Munich in 2 countries on same day appears for Wales in 2-0 European Championship loss to Czechoslovakia in Prague, then jets to Munich for 3-2 Cup win over Borussia Oldest known insect fossils (390 million yrs) reported in Science "Prince of Central Park" closes at Belasco Theater NYC after 4 performances Romanian students protest in Bucharest before the Communist Party congress, shouting "we want reforms", in a sign of the revolution to come "Shadowlands" opens at Brooks Atkinson Theater NYC for 169 performances Calif's Chuck Finley & Seattle's Randy Johnson combine to pitch a no-hitter in exhibition game between US & Japanese all-star teams The Church of England approves the ordination of female priests

Event of Interest

1993 Pope John Paul II hospitalized for 2 days for fractured shoulder

Event of Interest

1994 Bill Gates buys Leonardo da Vinci's "Codex" for $30,800,000

    Progress M-25 launched to space station Mir Atlanta Braves starting pitcher John Smoltz wins NL Cy Young Award Pat Hentgen of the Toronto Blue Jays claims AL Award CBS News anchor Dan Rather renews his contract to 2002 Canadian based players win Cy Young Awards for best MLB pitcher Toronto Blue Jays' Roger Clemens wins his 4th AL Award Pedro Martinez of Montreal Expos takes NL Award WNBA announces franchises in Detroit (Shock) and Washington D.C. (Mystics) would join the League as expansion teams for the 1998 season NHL’s new Columbus franchise (scheduled to begin play in 2000) announce team’s name would be “Blue Jackets” after soldiers in the Union army during the American Civil War Last upside down date until January 1, 6000 155 skiers and snowboarders die when a funicular railway catches fire in an alpine tunnel near Kaprun, Austria Journalists Pierre Billaud, Johanne Sutton and Volker Handloik are killed in Afghanistan during an attack on the convoy they were traveling on top off.

Federation Cup

2001 Federation Cup Women's Tennis, Madrid, Spain: Kim Clijsters beats Elena Dementieva 6-0, 6-4 to clinch Belgium's first title with unassailable 2-0 lead (ends, 2-1)

Event of Interest

2002 Belgian tennis star Kim Clijsters beats American Serena Williams 7–5, 6–3 to win the season-ending WTA Tour Championship at the Staples Center, Los Angeles

#1 in the Charts

2003 Josh Groban releases his second album "Closer" it goes to #1 on US charts and becomes his biggest seller

Election of Interest

2004 Yasser Arafat's death through unidentified causes confirmed by Palestine Liberation Organization, Mahmoud Abbas elected PLO chairman minutes later.

Event of Interest

2006 New Zealand war memorial monument unveiled by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II in London, United Kingdom, commemorating the loss of soldiers from the New Zealand Army and the British Army

Event of Interest

2007 Justine Henin of Belgium beats Russian Maria Sharapova 5–7, 7–5, 6–3 to win $1m winners cheque and her 2nd straight season-ending WTA Tour Championship in Madrid, Spain

Album Release

2008 Taylor Swift releases her 2nd studio album “Fearless” (2009 Billboard Album of the Year, Grammy Album of the Year 2010, American Music Awards 2009)


Sporting Highlights for 1944

Here are some of the sporting highlights in the world of sport for 1944. It was the year of the Olympics, and the summer games was scheduled to be held in London, England and the winter games in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy. Both events were cancelled due to the Second World War. Cortina d'Ampezzo was later awarded to host the Winter Olympics in 1956. Other events to be cancelled due to war incldued Wimbledon, the French and Australian Open Tennis, the British Golf Open, Golf Masters, US Open, and the Tour de France.

It was the fourth year the Australian Open and the Wimbledon were cancelled and the French Open held under German occupation was declared officially unrecognized due to World War II. The only grand slam event held was the US Open in which Pauline Betz Addie won the title for the third straight year. Pauline also won the event one more time in the future to finish her career with five grand slam wins. Frank Parker won the men's event for his first grand slam title. Frank took one more US Open and two French Open titles and finished his career with four slam wins.

PGA Championship was the only major men's golf tournament held on that year in which the other three were cancelled due to the second world war. Bob Hamilton won the event for his first and only major. Babe Zaharias won the Women's Western Open, the only women's major event held that year, for her second major title.

Below is a timeline of some significant results in the world of sport for the year 1944.

Date Results
Aug Golf US PGA won by Bob Hamilton
Sep Tennis US National Championship won by Frank Parker and Pauline Betz
Oct The Baseball World Series won by St. Louis Cardinals

Please note that the dates for past events are not always known, and are sometimes just placed in the month that the current event is held. If no exact date is listed, then it is just an estimated month that it was held.

If you have a correction or know of events that should be included here, please let me know.


Contributions to economic theory

Friedman’s contributions to economic theory are numerous. One of his earliest, described in A Theory of the Consumption Function (1957), was the articulation of the permanent income hypothesis, the idea that a household’s consumption and savings decisions are more affected by changes in its permanent income than by income changes that household members perceive as temporary or transitory. The permanent income hypothesis provided an explanation for some puzzles that had emerged in the empirical data concerning the relationship between the average and marginal propensities to consume. It also helped to explain why, for example, fiscal policy in the form of a tax increase, if perceived as temporary, might not lead to the intended reductions in consumption instead, the increased tax might be financed out of savings, leaving consumption levels unchanged. That was Friedman’s novel finding: if households do not perceive permanent income as changing, they will maintain their established spending patterns.

Friedman’s best-known contributions are in the realm of monetary economics, where he is regarded as the founder of monetarism and as one of the successors of the “Chicago school” tradition of economics. In the 1950s macroeconomics was dominated by scholars who adhered to theories promoted by John Maynard Keynes. Keynesians believed in using government-sponsored policy to counteract the business cycle, and they held that fiscal policy was more effective than monetary policy in neutralizing, for example, the effects of a recession. Friedman opposed the Keynesian view that “money does not matter,” instead promoting the theory that changes in the money supply affect real economic activity in the short run and the price level in the long run. He stated his case in his introduction to Studies in the Quantity of Money (1956), a collection of articles that had been contributed by participants in the Money and Banking Workshop. That work was followed by an article, “The Relative Stability of Monetary Velocity and the Investment Multiplier in the United States, 1897–1958” (1963), coauthored with David Meiselman, in which the stability and importance of the Keynesian multiplier was questioned. The multiplier, forming a link between changes in autonomous expenditure and subsequent changes in national income, is a key element in the Keynesian case for effective and predictable fiscal policy.

In 1963 Friedman published the first of three books he would coauthor with Anna J. Schwartz, A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960. Combining theoretical and empirical analysis with institutional insights, that volume provided an intricately detailed account of the role of money in the U.S. economy since the Civil War. Especially influential was the authors’ claim that the Great Depression would have been a typical downturn had it not been for policy errors made by the Federal Reserve.

In 1967 Friedman made another seminal contribution to Keynesian-monetarist debates in his presidential address before the American Economic Association. In it he questioned the validity of another key Keynesian construct, the Phillips curve, which asserted that a stable trade-off exists between the rate of wage inflation and the unemployment rate. Friedman argued that the trade-off was temporary and depended on workers’ being “fooled” by unanticipated wage inflation into thinking that a rise in their nominal wage was a rise in their real wage, thus inducing them to produce more output. According to Friedman, reducing unemployment below what he dubbed the “natural rate” required not a one-time wage increase but accelerating wage inflation. The “ stagflation” of the 1970s (literally, a combination of economic stagnation and inflation), impossible in a simplified Keynesian framework, was seen by many as confirmation of Friedman’s hypothesis. In any event, it marked the end of the dominance of the Keynesian model in macroeconomics.

In 1975 Friedman traveled to Chile, where he delivered a series of lectures and public talks and met with the country’s then military dictator, Augusto Pinochet. Friedman advised Pinochet in a subsequent letter to administer a “shock treatment” to the Chilean economy to cure it of runaway inflation. His prescriptions, eventually implemented under the direction of a group of Chilean economists who had trained at the University of Chicago in the 1950s and ’60s (the “Chicago boys”), included drastic cuts in public spending, the privatization of state-operated enterprises, the elimination of wage and price controls, and the deregulation of financial markets and foreign trade. The consequences of those measures have been intensely debated in numerous studies. Friedman was widely criticized for apparently lending support to the dictatorship, a charge that he and his supporters regarded as unfair.

In 1976, the year he retired from the University of Chicago, Friedman was awarded the Nobel Prize for Economics. In 1977 he became a member of the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, a conservative think tank. About the same time, he began work with his wife, Rose, on the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television series Free to Choose, a counterpoint to John Kenneth Galbraith’s Age of Uncertainty. Their popular series extolling the virtues of a free market system eventually led to a book (1980) and a set of educational videos of the same title. In 1998 the Friedmans published their memoirs, Two Lucky People.

Over the course of his career, Friedman became an articulate spokesman for free markets and free societies in an era when many social scientists disparaged market solutions to social problems. Friedman’s collaborative work with Anna J. Schwartz has remained a vital resource for those interested in the monetary history of the United States. Other legacies include Friedman’s revival of a monetary approach to macroeconomics and his persistent critique of Keynesian economics.


1944: Early "Smart" Weapons Go to War

One was a fuse that exploded a projectile when directly over its target, rather than on impact, making the weapon five to 20 times more effective. The "radio proximity fuse" designed by NIST was a tiny radio transmitter and receiver about the size of a light bulb, powered by batteries or generators. Variations on the device were designed for rockets, shells, and bombs. Hundreds of workers spent several years perfecting the technology, first tested in early 1941.

The fuse, often described as a leading technical advance of the wartime period, was not released for general use until 1944. Mortar shell fuses did not go into full production, but fuses for rockets and bombs went into full production and were used extensively. The first major combat use of the fuse was during the preinvasion bombardment of Iwo Jima in 1945. Some 8.3 million fuses were produced.

NIST also helped design and construct the Bat, the first fully automated guided missile ever used successfully in combat. In addition to coordinating civilian agencies' work on the Bat, NIST worked out the aerodynamic and stabilization characteristics of the 454 kilogram (1,000 pound) missile, which emitted shortwave radiation and was guided by the radar echoes of the enemy target. In addition to its self-guidance capability, the Bat was known for its long range, high accuracy, and high payload. It was used in the Pacific theater.


Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 1944 - History

Timeline of Chinese Immigration to the United States

1785 Three Chinese seamen arrive in the continental United States aboard the ship Pallas in Baltimore, MD.

1790 The Naturalization Act of 1790 restricts citizenship to “free white persons” of “good moral character.” The law would be enforced until 1952. In effect the Nation is divided between White and racial minority populations, each of whom would be accorded different and unequal rights and treatment. Racial minorities would be limited in their citizenship, voting, residency, jury, property, and family rights. Asian Americans, including Chinese Americans, would be directly affected by this legislation until it was rescinded by the passage of the Walter-McCarran Act of 1952.

1830 The first U.S. Census notation of Chinese in America records three Chinese living in the United States.

1830s Chinese sailors and peddlers visit New York.

1844 United States and China sign treaty of "peace, amity, and commerce."

1847 Yung Wing and two other Chinese students arrive in US for schooling.

1848 Gold is discovered in California and a gold rush begins.

1850 Chinese American population in U.S. is about 4,000 out of a population of 23.2 million. Chinese in California form associations for mutual protection.

1854 The California Supreme Court decision, People v. Hall, rules that Chinese cannot testify in court.

1858 California legally prohibits Chinese and “Mongolian” immigration.

1860 Chinese American population in US is 34,933 out of a total population of 31.4 million.

1862 The United States prohibits the importation of Chinese “coolies” on American vessels.

1865 Central Pacific recruits Chinese workers to build a transcontinental railroad.

1868 The United States and China ratify the Burlingame-Seward Treaty, which sanctions mutual emigration between the two countries.

1869 The first transcontinental railroad is completed with significant Chinese immigrant labor.

1870 Chinese American population in US is 63,199 out of a total population of 38.5 million.

1870 Congress approves the Naturalization Act, barring Chinese from obtaining U.S. citizenship. The Act also prevents immigration of Chinese women who have marital partners in the United States. Chinese and Japanese men must show evidence in support of a woman’s moralcharacter in the case of prospective and actual wives of Chinese and Japanese descent.

1871 Anti-Chinese violence erupts in Los Angeles and other cities. Such violence continues throughout the decade.

1875 Congress passes the Page Law, which bars Chinese, Japanese, and “Mongolian” prostitutes, felons, and contract laborer immigration.

1878 A federal district court in California rules Chinese ineligible for naturalized citizenship.

1880 The United States and China sign a treaty that allows the United States to limit Chinese immigration.

1882 Congress passes the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, which halts Chinese laborer immigration for 10 years and denies Chinese from becoming naturalized U.S. citizens.

1886 The U.S. Supreme Court decision, Yick Wo v. Hopkins, rules that laws that are enforced with racial discrimination violates the 14th Amendment.

1888 The Scott Act declares over 20,000 Chinese laborers’ re-entry permits null and void.

1889 The U.S. Supreme Court decision, Chae Chan Ping v. United States, upholds Chinese Exclusion laws’ constitutionality.

1890 Chinese American population in U.S. is 107,488 out of a total population of 62.9 million.

1892 The Geary Act extends the Chinese Exclusion Act for another 10 years and requires all Chinese residents to carry permits.

1893 In Fong Yue Ting v. United States, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that Congress has the power to expel the Chinese.

1894 Sun Yat Sen, founder of modern China and political activist, helps bring down the Qing dynasty. He establishes home-base operations for the liberation of China among ChineseAmerican communities in Hawaii, San Francisco, and in New York.

1898 The U.S. Supreme Court admits Wong Kim Ark, a Chinese American born and raised in the United States, back into the United States. Ark was initially denied entry due to the Chinese Exclusion Act. The case rules that U.S.-born Chinese cannot be divested of their citizenship.

1904 Congress makes the Chinese Exclusion acts indefinite. Law enforcement officials arrest 250 allegedly illegal Chinese immigrants without search warrants.

1905 California’s Civil Code forbids intermarriage between Whites and “Mongolians.”

1906 Earthquake destroys all records in San Francisco, including immigration records. This opens the opportunity for a new surge of Chinese immigrants. These “paper sons” could now claim with the loss of official records that they were U.S. citizens and had the right to bring family members to America. The U.S. government creates the Bureau of Immigration.

1910 Chinese American population in U.S. is 94,414 out of a total population of 92.2 million. Angel Island Immigration Station opens to process potential Asian immigrants.

1917 The Immigration Act of 1917 restricts immigration of Asian persons and denies entry of natives from the “barred zone.”

1918 World War I Asian veterans receive right of naturalization.

1924 The Asian Exclusion Act, which is part of the Immigration Act of 1924, excludes all Asian laborer immigrants from entering into the United States. The U.S. Border Patrol is created, as an agency under the Department of Labor, to regulate Chinese immigration to the United States across the U.S.-Mexico border.

1925 Chinese wives of American citizens are denied entry.

1929 Annual immigration quotas are declared permanent.

1930 Chinese American population in U.S. is 102,159 out of a total population of 123.2 million.

1932 Anna May Wong, at the height of her career, stars with Marlene Dietrich in Shanghai Express.

1941 The United States declares war after the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor. China is now an ally of the United States.

1943 Congress repeals all Chinese exclusion laws, grants Chinese the right to become naturalized citizens, and allows 105 Chinese to immigrate to the US each year. China and the United States become World War II allies against Japan. The U.S. Army drafts over 20 percent of Chinese men living in the United States.

1945 World War II ends with atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.

1947 Due to the 1945 War Brides Act of 1945, permitting immigration of foreign wives, husbands, fiancés, and children of U.S. Army personnel, 6,000 Chinese women enter into the United States as wives of Chinese American servicemen.

1949 The United States grants refugee status to 5,000 highly educated Chinese after China launches a Communist government. This Central Intelligence Agency Act (CIA Act) encourages Chinese scientists, engineers, and physicists to enter into the United States in furtherance of U.S. national security interests.

1950 Chinese American population in U.S. is 150,005 out of 151,325,798.

1952 The Walter-McCarran Immigration and Naturalization Act revokes the Asian Exclusion Act of 1924. A small number of Asians are also allowed to immigrate to the United States and are given citizenship status.

1953 The Refugee Relief Act offers unlimited immigrant visas to Chinese refugees.

1959 The U.S. government implements the eight-year “Confession Program” to encourage illegal Chinese immigrants to reveal identities of illegal residents.

1962 The Kennedy Emergency Immigration Act (KEIA Act) permits 5,000 Chinese immigrants to enter the United States during the period of China’s “Great Leap Forward” movement.

1965 A new immigration act effectively removes racial bias from America's immigration laws.

1968 San Francisco State College and the University of California at Berkeley students successfully strike for more minority studies programs. The demonstration leads to the historic School of Ethnic Studies at San Francisco State College and the creation of Black Studies at the University of California at Berkeley. In following years, Asian American Studies, Chicano Studies, Native American Studies, and comparative Ethnic Studies programs start at U.C. Berkeley and University of California at Los Angeles. These programs address the immigration history and ethnic experiences of Asian Americans and Chinese Americans.

1970 Chinese American population of the U.S. is 237,292 out of 179,323,175

1976 American physicist Samuel Ting wins the Nobel Prize in Physics

1982 Vincent Chin, a Chinese American, is killed by two white Americans. Chin's killers are sentenced only to probation and a fine of $3,000 plus court fees.

1982 Maya Lin's design selected for the Vietnam Veteran's Memorial.

1987 TIME Magazine publishes a cover article entitled "The New Whiz Kids". Many Chinese Americans express a concern about a "model minority" stereotype.

1990 Chinese American population of the U.S. is 1,645,472 out of 248,709,873.

1996 Dr. David Ho is named TIME Magazine's Man of the Year for his research into HIV/Aids.


The Battle of the Bulge: July 1944-January 1945

On July 20, 1944­, young German colo­nel Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg, a wounded veteran of the Tunisian campaign of World War II, attended Hitler's morning briefing at the Rastenberg headquarters in East Prussia while carrying a time­ bomb in a brie­fcase. He left the case under the heavy oak table at which Hitler was standing and found an excuse to leave. A few minutes later, the bomb exploded -- but not before another officer, finding it in his way, had kicked the case farther under the table. The blast killed four of those present, but Hitler was shielded by the heavy table. He emerged alive and vengeful. Stauffenberg was executed that night in Berlin. Several thousand suspects were arrested and about 200 were executed in the weeks that followed.

The assassination attempt coincided with a sudden crisis in the German war effort. Until late July, the front in Normandy had held, though at high cost. Again and again, the Germans struggled to repulse the British effort to capture the French city of Caen. The effort denuded German troops and tanks from other parts of the front, which allowed American commanders to plan a breakout through the German line.

After weeks of preparation and with overwhelming air support, U.S. general Omar Bradley launched Operation Cobra on July 25. For the first time, Western forces were able to develop real mobility. The line was broken open, and Bradley -- supported by notoriously belligerent general George Patton -- drove the German army back toward Paris in a matter of weeks. On August 25, Paris was liberated, partly by the approaching armies and partly by the French Resistance, which staged a final revolt against German occupation.

A second landing in southern France began on August 15, and within two weeks the enemy was cleared from the rest of France, meaning the Allies stood on the frontiers of Nazi Germany. The Western Allies grew hopeful that Nazi Germany might be defeated before the onset of winter. But General Montgomery's airborne assault on the Dutch city of Arnhem in the middle of September (to make it possible to cross the Rhine River) was bloodily repulsed. German resistance stiffened in immediate defense of the home territory.

In the East, Soviet Union troops reached the German border on August 17. Finland sued for peace on September 2, and during the following month the Baltic States were occupied and reabsorbed into the Soviet Union bloc.

Farther south, the Red Army made rapid progress after the destruction of German Army Group Center. Romania was occupied in August and switched to the Allied side. Bulgaria was occupied next, and by the end of October parts of Slovakia were also in Soviet Union hands. The Red Army stood on the boundaries of Hungary and Yugoslavia.

The dramatic collapse of Axis resistance owed something to popular resistance both in the West and the East. In Yugoslavia, a large Communist army under the leadership of Joseph Tito played the major role in liberating Yugoslav territory. In Italy, partisans harried the retreating Germans and prepared for a new postwar order.

In some cases, resistance was clearly anti-Soviet Union. In the Ukraine, a guerrilla war -- fought by nationalists -- tied down thousands of Soviet Union soldiers and security forces during 1944 and 1945 and slowed the move westward.

In Poland, the Home Army hoped to liberate its country before Soviet Union forces had time to construct a Communist state. On August 1, as the Red Army stood on the far side of the Vistula River, Polish nationalist forces in Warsaw staged an uprising against the German occupiers. The result was a savage response from the embattled German forces, which destroyed much of what remained of the city. The Red Army stayed where it was, and would not capture Warsaw until the start of the renewed campaign in January 1945.

In the Pacific, the Allies made rapid progress. Following the capture of Saipan, American forces retook Guam and opened the whole of the western Pacific to Allied forces. The Japanese again sought a decisive big battle as a key to saving what was left of their new empire. However, the American decision to reoccupy the Philippines exposed Japan's air forces to severe attack.

When the Japanese main fleet was deployed to oppose the American landings on the Philippine island of Leyte, the force lacked adequate air cover. The encounter was the largest naval battle ever fought, involving 282 ships.

In late October, three separate Japanese task forces were deployed to try to defeat the invasion. The result was a decisive victory for the U.S. Navy, as Japan lost 26 front-line warships. The invasion force landed on Leyte and cleared the island by the end of the year. Defeat of Japan was now only a matter of time.

The same could be said of Hitler's Germany, which was now surrounded on all sides by heavily armed enemies and subject to constant aerial bombardment. Yet Hitler still hoped for victory.

From June, new "weapons of revenge" -- the V-1 flying bomb and the V-2 ballistic missile -- were launched against London. Hitler hoped that by holding or destroying ports in the West, combined with a renewed U-boat campaign with new types of submarines, Nazi Germany would deprive U.S. and British forces of replacements and supplies.

In December 1944, Hitler ordered the German army and air force to use its scarce reserves for a daring counteroffensive in the West against American forces. The goal was to divide the Western Allies, seize the port of Antwerp, and force them to rethink their strategy. His commanders preferred a more limited offensive, but on December 16 Hitler unleashed Operation Autumn Mist.

In poor weather, which shielded the panzer armies from air attack, the Germans made rapid progress and carved out a salient 50 miles deep in the Ardennes. The Allies regrouped and counterattacked in what became known as the Battle of the Bulge. American resistance at St. Vith and Bastogne, Belgium, held up the German advance, and heavy counterstrikes drove German forces back to the German frontier.

On January 8, Hitler pulled his battered army back. The loss of 600 tanks and 1,600 aircraft marked the defeat of the Ardennes offensive. Nazi Germany was now exposed to the grim finale of the European war that Hitler had launched six years before.

See the next page for a detailed timeline of World War II events, including mass murders at the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp in early July, 1944.


Martin Luther King, Jr. born

On January 15, 1929, Martin Luther King, Jr. is born in Atlanta, Georgia, the son of a Baptist minister. King received a doctorate degree in theology and in 1955 helped organize the first major protest of the African American civil rights movement: the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott. Influenced by Mohandas Gandhi, he advocated civil disobedience and nonviolent resistance to segregation in the South. The peaceful protests he led throughout the American South were often met with violence, but King and his followers persisted, and the movement gained momentum.

A powerful orator, King appealed to Christian and American ideals and won growing support from the federal government and Northern whites. In 1963, Bayard Rustin and A. Philip Randolph led the massive March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom the event’s grand finale was King’sꃺmous “I Have a Dream” speech. Two hundred and fifty thousand people gathered outside the Lincoln Memorial to hear the stirring speech. 


Events of 1945

The New Year saw the Soviet liberation of Auschwitz, and the revelation of the sickening obscenity of the Holocaust, its scale becoming clearer as more camps were liberated in the following months.

The Soviet army continued its offensive from the east, while from the west the Allies established a bridge across the Rhine at Remagen, in March.

While the bombing campaigns of the Blitz were over, German V1 and V2 rockets continued to drop on London. The return bombing raids on Dresden, which devastated the city in a huge firestorm, have often been considered misguided.

Meantime, the Western Allies raced the Russians to be the first into Berlin. The Russians won, reaching the capital on 21 April. Hitler killed himself on the 30th, two days after Mussolini had been captured and hanged by Italian partisans. Germany surrendered unconditionally on 7 May, and the following day was celebrated as VE (Victory in Europe) day. The war in Europe was over.

In the Pacific, however, it had continued to rage throughout this time. The British advanced further in Burma, and in February the Americans had invaded Iwo Jima. The Philippines and Okinawa followed and Japanese forces began to withdraw from China.

Plans were being prepared for an Allied invasion of Japan, but fears of fierce resistance and massive casualties prompted Harry Truman - the new American president following Roosevelt's death in April - to sanction the use of an atomic bomb against Japan.

Such bombs had been in development since 1942, and on 6 August one of them was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Three days later another was dropped on Nagasaki. No country could withstand such attacks, and the Japanese surrendered on 14 August.

The biggest conflict in history had lasted almost six years. Some 100 million people had been militarised, and 50 million had been killed. Of those who had died, 15 million were soldiers, 20 million were Russian civilians, six million were Jews and over four million were Poles.


Setting History in Motion

As the philosopher Cornel West put it in his introduction to Jackie Robinson’s autobiography, I Never Had It Made, “More even than either Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War, or Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Civil Rights movement, Jackie Robinson graphically symbolized and personified the challenge to a vicious legacy and ideology of white supremacy in American history,” a challenge, Cornel continued, that “remains incomplete, unfinished.”

It is so easy for us to underestimate the enormous significance, both symbolically and politically, of Jackie Robinson’s integration of Major League Baseball, today when so very many black athletes play such dominant roles in sports. Baseball was America’s “national pastime,” and it was also, accordingly, the ultimate bastion of white male dominance. If professional sports as a whole were to be desegregated — and to some extent, the larger society — this effort had to commence on the baseball field. To understand the even broader social and political import of what Robinson’s actions on the field initiated, we need only consider the chain reaction of crucial episodes in the history of the civil rights movement that unfolded almost immediately after his first season with the Dodgers.

First, President Harry Truman issued Executive Order 9982 on July 26, 1948, just over a year after Robinson faced his first pitcher at Ebbets Field, abolishing racial discrimination in the armed forces. It is certainly reasonable to assume that Truman’s timing was informed by Robinson’s successful integration of professional baseball. Truman’s desegregation of the military no doubt informed the Supreme Court’s Brown v. Board decision desegregating public schools in 1954, which in turn informed the actions of Rosa Parks on her bus, leading to the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Out of the Montgomery Bus Boycott emerged the leadership role of the young Martin Luther King Jr. Without Martin Luther King, Jr. there would have been no modern civil rights movement.

And without the civil rights movement, there would have been no affirmative action, and without affirmative action, to fast-forward a bit, there would be no Barack Obama.

I’m not claiming that what Jackie Robinson alone achieved in 1947 set off this chain reaction of events, but his courage and bravery played a major role in the history of integration, both on the field and throughout American society, and no history of the civil rights movement would be complete without noting Robinson’s major role, and according him a place of honor and immortality in African-American history because of it.

Off the field, Jackie Robinson was also one of movement’s strongest voices, in spite of the fact that he had to withstand so much abuse on the field and from the stands in stoic yet eloquent silence. He once wrote, in a letter to Averell Harriman in 1955, that “We are sure that in time, the spirit embedded in the Constitution of the United States will prevail in all sections of the country however, it is important now that we be vigilant in guarding against flagrant miscarriages of justice that will hurt not only the innocent victims, but also the perpetrators.” He desperately — and unsuccessfully — lobbied Republican presidential candidate Richard Nixon to intervene when Dr. King was jailed in Georgia in October 1960. Some scholars believe that John Kennedy’s decision to do so led to his margin of victory over Nixon.

Jackie Robinson was a “race man,” as they said in those days, dedicated to the betterment of the black people. As he wrote in another letter to William Keefe in 1956, “I speak to you only as an American who happens to be an American Negro and one who is proud of that heritage. We ask for nothing special. We ask only that we be permitted to compete on an even basis, and if we are not worthy, then the competition shall, per se, eliminate us.” Hank Aaron noted this quite eloquently in his introduction to I Never Had It Made: “Jackie Robinson gave all of us — not only black athletes but every black person in this country — a sense of our own strength.” As the conservative columnist George Will correctly noted, Robinson’s life is “One of the great achievements not only in the annals of sports, but of the human drama anywhere, anytime.”

It is for these reasons that we should all be grateful that Robinson was acquitted at his court-martial for refusing to move to the back of the bus, and that we should honor the immortal legacy of Jackie Robinson as one of the greatest heroes of the modern civil rights movement, this extraordinarily noble man who suffered so much in so many ways for the sacrifices he made, both publicly and privately, so that African Americans could continue their long march for freedom and equality in this great republic with new vigor and determination.

Fifty of the 100 Amazing Facts will be published on The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross website. Read all 100 Facts on The Root.


Watch the video: Ο Μπομπ Ντίλαν παρέλαβε το Νόμπελ Λογοτεχνίας


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