Hamilton II DD- 141 - History

Hamilton II DD- 141 - History

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Hamilton II

(DD-141: dp. 1,090; 1. 314'5", b. 31'9"; dr. 8'8"; s. 35 k.;
epl. 113; a. 4 4", 3 .30 eel, 12 21" tt.: cl. Wickes)

Hamilton (DD-141) was launched 15 January 1919 by the Mare Island Navy Shipyard; sponsored by Miss Dolly Hamilton Hawkins, great-grand-niece of Archibald Hamilton, and commissioned 7 November 1919, Lt. Comdr. R. G. Goman in command.

Based at San Diego, Hamilton participated in battle practice and maneuvers along the California coast with Destroyer Squadron 17. In the summer of 1920 she also took part in torpedo and smoke screen operations in Hawaii. Battle practice and other readiness operations ranging across the Pacific to Hawaii continued until Hamilton decommissioned at San Diego 20 July 1922.

Hamilton recommissioned 20 January 1930 and, after shakedown, reached her new home port, Norfolk, 26 November. She served with the Scouting Force, operating along the East Coast throughout 1931, and then returned to San Diego in January 1932. After a year of plane guard duty and battle exercises along the California coast, Hamilton again shifted to the East Coast, reaching Norfolk 29 January 1933. Based at Newport, R.I., she served with the Scouting Force in local operations and exercises until 1939. When war broke in Europe in the fall of that year, Hamilton joined other four-stackers on the Grand Banks Patrol, which sent American ships as far North as Iceland and Greenland to protect their own and neutral shipping. Hamilton continued this duty until converted to a fast minesweeper in June 1941. Reclassified DMS-18 on 17 October 1941, she resumed patrol duty along the East Coast and into the North Atlantic.

When America was catapulted into the war 7 December 1941, Ham&Mac245;lton's pace accelerated greatly. Wartime duties now took the old flush-decker on coastal convoys from New York through U-boat infested waters as far south as the Canal Zone.

The Caribbean and the waters off Cape Hatteras were particularly rich ground for the Nazi marauders. and Hamilton more than once attacked U-boats sighted on the Surface or detected by sound contacts. On 9 June 1942 Hamilton rescued 39 survivors of destroyer Gannet, torpedoed just north of Bermuda.

The shifting tide of war drew Hamilton from the coastal convoy route in the fall of 1942 as she became part of "Operation Torch," the Allied invasion of North Africa. Hamilton sailed for North Africa 24 October with Rear Admiral H. K. Hewitt's Task Force 34, a part of America's giant overseas amphibious thrust. Two weeks later, she cruised off the Moroccan coast providing antisubmarine protection and fire support for the first waves of invasion barges as the Allies stormed ashore at Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers 8 November 1942.

Hamilton remained along the North African shore on minesweeping and escort duty out of Casablanca until December when she sailed for the Brooklyn Navy Yard, arriving 26 December. The following year saw Hamilton engaged primarily in coastal convoy duty, guiding and protecting merchantmen as they threaded their perilous way through German submarine packs from Iceland to the Caribbean.

Then as 1943 waned, the ebb and flow of war once again drew Hamilton from home waters, and sent her into the fiercely raging Pacific war. Departing Norfolk 3 December 1943, Hamilton transited the Panama Canal 5 days later and reached San Diego 16 December. The long giant steps across the Pacific had begun to accelerate, and Hamilton was soon to have her first taste of battle in the crucial Marshall Islands campaign. From San Diego she steamed to Pearl Harbor and, after a brief training period, sailed for Kwajalein Island, a key target in the Marshalls. As the Marines stormed ashore there 31 January 1944, Hamilton steamed in the area to screen
transports and provide the fire support that made it possible to land and stay.

After the successful conclusion of that invasion, Hamilton retired Noumea, New Caledonia, to prepare for the invasion of the Admiralty Islands. At Noumea, Hamilton joined forces with three other flush-deckers converted to fast minesweepers—Hovey, Long, and Palmer—to form an important preliminary sweep unit. It was the hazardous and vital mission of these ships to enter enemy harbors three to five days before D-day to clear out mines and provide safe anchorage for the invasion force. The toll of these operations, conducted before enemy shore batteries had been taken out, was high. Of her original unit only Hamilton survived the war.

Under unceasing enemy fire, Hamilton and her group entered Seeadler Harbor, Admiralty Islands, 2 March 1944 to begin sweeping operations. After the invasion was launched, she remained in the area screening transports and patrolling on ASW duty until early April when she returned to Noumea to prepare for the invasion of Aitape. After sweeping operations there before the 22 April invasion, Hamilton served on general sweeping duty in the Solomons and then readied for the Mariana campaign.

Entering Saipan Harbor 13 June, Hamilton helped clear the way for the invasion. The struggle for Saipan was important not only in itself, but also in that it precipitated the Battle of the Philippine Sea, the far-spreading battle known to the Navy as the "Marianas Turkey Shoot" because of the number of Japanese planes shot down during the intensive engagement fought on 19 and 20 June. American carrier planes and ships under the command of the famous Admirals R. A. Spruance and Marc A. Mitscher decimated Japan's air arm, downing 395 carrier planes, and 31 float planes. In addition American submarines CavaUa and Albacore sank two of Japan's few remaining carriers, Shokok' and Taiho, while carriebased planes chalked up a third, Hiyo. After this decisive battle had crippled them, the Japanese high command thoroughly understood that the war was lost, and that now they could only delay the end.

The conquest of Saipan was followed by an equally hard-fought struggle for Guam. The day organized enemy resistance on Saipan ended, Hamilton sailed from Entwetok ~ July to take part in the preliminary bombardment and sweeping activities at Guam. This time a long period on the fling line preceded Hamilton's entrance into the harbor. Then 3 days before D-day, 21 July, she started to sweep the harbor. After screening transports in the retirement area, Hamilton sailed to Pearl Harbor for repairs.

Hamilton's next tour of hazardous mine sweeping duty fell at Peleliu Island. Arriving of f the Palaus 12 September 1944, Hamilton joined her unit and proceeded through several heavily mined channels. In Kossol Passage, the converted destroyers exploded 116 mines. For destroying three extensive mine fields, which the Japanese had hoped would ward off or severely damage the invasion force, Hamilton and the other minesweepers received the coveted Navy Unit Commendation. Then, after duty in the transport screen, she escorted convoys from the staging areas to the Palaus to prepare for the assault on the Philippine Islands.

She departed Manus 10 October and entered Leyte Gulf on the 17th. Three days before Army divisions came ashore, Hamilton swept the channels around Dinagat Island and Looc Bay to clear the way to the invasion beaches. To add to the usual turmoil of battle, the fleet as a whole was under almost constant air attack. Then the Japanese made the one final dramatic but futile effort to regain control over the Pacific seas and repel the Americans from the Philippines. In this bitterly fought effort, the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the already depleted Imperial Navy was virtually annihilated. As the battle raged 23 to 26 October, American submarines, planes and surface ships sank three battleships, four carriers, six heavy and four light cruisers, and nine destroyers. American losses were two escort carriers, a light carrier, and
three destroyers. This battle marked the end of Japanese sea power as an important threat. The fleet had cleared the way for the final assaults leading into Japan.

Arriving at Manus, Admiralty Islands, 31 October, Hamilton underwent availability and repairs and, once more ready for battle, sailed 23 December to prepare the way for the invasion of Lingayen Gulf. As the minesweepers steamed through the channel 6 January 1945, wave after wave of kamikazes attacked as the Japanese suicidally hurled themselves at the American fleet, bent on destroying it no matter what the cost. Hamilton, emerged from the desperate kamikaze attacks unscathed, although she saw other ships struck time and again by the "divine wind" and other air attacks. After the invasion forces landed at Lingayen Gulf 9 January, Hamilton remained as a transport screen and escort until 1 February when she sailed for Saipan.

From Saipan the gallant veteran ship again steamed into battle, this time appearing off Iwo Jima, the rockbound Japanese island which was to cost America so dearly. Hamilton recorded no casualties during sweeping operations-which began 16 February, but she had to aid her sister-ship amble left powerless by a direct bomb hit on the 18th. In addition to helping the wounded ship fight myriad fires, Hamilton took on board and care for the more seriously injured sailors. After marines stormed ashore on Iwo Jima 19 February, Hamilton patrolled on the fortress island until 27 February. The four-stacker then returned to Iwo Jima as a convoy escort 7 March. Three days later Hamilton sailed from the battle and from the Pacific War. Steaming for Eniwetok, she changed course to rescue 11 men from a downed B-29 11 March.

Hamilton reached Pearl Harbor via Eniwetok 25 March and, after a brief period of training, headed home. As she sailed under the Golden Gate Bridge 8 April, the tireless destroyer ended over 100,000 hard miles of steaming in the Pacific struggle. Scheduled for overhaul and modernization, she went into drydock at Richmond, Calif.; but she was subsequently reclassified AC: 111 (miscellaneous auxiliary) 6 May 1945 and taken out of drydock. The faithful four-stacker spent the few remaining months of the war participating in experimental minesweeping work along the California coast out of Santa Barbara. Two weeks before the Japanese surrender, Hamilton bailed to the destroyer base at San Diego, where she decommissioned 16 October 1945 Her hulk was sold to Hugo Neu of New York City for scrapping 21 November 1946.

Hamilton earned nine battle stars for World War II service.

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Federalists and Democratic-Republicans

With the two-party system of government in its founding stages in the United States, a continent away events were taking place that would further the evolution of the Federalist and the Democratic-Republican parties. The people of France were taking their cues from the American Revolution and rebelling against the authoritarian leadership of King Louis XVI. As war ensued between France and Great Britain in 1793, conflict arose in America as the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans disagreed on where to place their loyalties.

According to the Franco-American Alliance of 1778, the United States was bound to aid France whenever called upon. But at the time of the Alliance, no one could foresee that France would become embroiled in conflict against Britain and that the United States might be called upon to repel British forces from French lands. The emerging American political parties took opposite sides on the issue. The Democratic-Republicans wanted to demonstrate loyalty to the French, who had helped them claim their own liberty, although Jefferson only wanted to lend moral support. He did not believe that the French would call upon the United States to uphold their end of the treaty. Conversely, the Federalists, under Hamilton’s leadership, implored President Washington to declare the 1778 treaty suspended. Hamilton’s primary goal was to maintain a peaceful relationship with Britain to ensure continued trade to support the American economy.

George Washington’s response was an action of inaction. He issued the Neutrality Proclamation in 1793, which declared the United States neutral between Britain and France and strongly urged people to avoid any alliance with either camp. The Democratic-Republicans were outraged, not only by the declaration itself, but by Washington’s failure to consult Congress before issuing the proclamation. The Federalists, for the most part, were pleased.

Citizen Edmond Genêt, a French representative to the United States, set out to take advantage of the conflict. Upon meeting with Democratic-Republicans, he came to believe that the Neutrality Proclamation was more a governmental display of excess authority than a reflection of the public’s desire. He began to recruit unauthorized American armies to overtake Spanish Florida and Louisiana, along with parts of British Canada, in support of the Franco-American Alliance. Genêt even threatened to overthrow Washington himself. However, Washington prevailed by demanding and receiving Genêt’s withdrawal from the United States and replacement with a more rational French representative.

The Democratic-Republicans perpetually found themselves at odds with the Federalists as the British continued to battle with France. Britain ignored Washington’s Proclamation of Neutrality, assumed America was allied with France, and seized ships in the West Indies and captured many American sailors. Although both the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans were outraged, they had very different opinions about how America should respond. Under Hamilton’s leadership, the Federalists were most concerned with the economy and wanted to avoid war at all costs. In contrast, the Democratic-Republicans following Jefferson’s leadership felt America was obligated to again fight Britain for its liberty.

Washington stepped in to contain the situation. He sent Federalist Chief Justice John Jay to London in 1794 to negotiate a treaty with Britain to maintain trade relations and avoid war. Yet again the Democratic-Republicans were unhappy with Washington’s actions, fearing that Jay, who was notoriously pro-British, would betray his own country.

Meanwhile Hamilton, fearful of war and ensuing economic disaster, sabotaged Jay’s negotiations by sharing U.S. negotiation tactics with the British. Not surprisingly, Jay’s negotiations were ineffective, garnering only minor victories for the United States. Jay’s Treaty gave the British 18 months to withdraw from the western forts, although they were given the right to continue fur trade with the Indians. The treaty also called for America to repay debts incurred to England during the Revolutionary War. Although there was public outcry over this treaty, the Senate passed the treaty in 1795.

The Democratic-Republicans raged, while the effects of Jay’s Treaty rippled across the United States and beyond. Spain, fearing that the treaty indicated burgeoning loyalties between the U.S. and England, moved to gain a foothold by establishing its own alliance with America. In Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795, the Spanish granted almost all the United States’ requests, including ownership of the previously disputed territory north of Florida. This treaty also gave American western farmers and traders the right of deposit at New Orleans.

Aaron Burr slays Alexander Hamilton in duel

In one of the most famous duels in American history, Vice President Aaron Burr fatally shoots his long-time political antagonist Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton, a leading Federalist and the chief architect of America’s political economy, died the following day.

Alexander Hamilton, born on the Caribbean island of Nevis, came to the American colonies in 1773 as a poor immigrant. (There is some controversy as to the year of his birth, but it was either 1755 or 1757.) In 1776, he joined the Continental Army in the American Revolution, and his relentless energy and remarkable intelligence brought him to the attention of General George Washington, who took him on as an aide. Ten years later, Hamilton served as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, and he led the fight to win ratification of the final document, which created the kind of strong, centralized government that he favored. In 1789, he was appointed the first secretary of the treasury by President Washington, and during the next six years he crafted a sophisticated monetary policy that saved the young U.S. government from collapse. With the emergence of political parties, Hamilton was regarded as a leader of the Federalists.

Aaron Burr, born into a prestigious New Jersey family in 1756, was also intellectually gifted, and he graduated from the College of New Jersey (later Princeton) at the age of 17. He joined the Continental Army in 1775 and distinguished himself during the Patriot attack on Quebec. A masterful politician, he was elected to the New York State Assembly in 1784 and later served as state attorney. In 1790, he defeated Alexander Hamilton’s father-in-law in a race for the U.S. Senate.

Hamilton came to detest Burr, whom he regarded as a dangerous opportunist, and he often spoke ill of him. When Burr joined Thomas Jefferson’s Democratic-Republican ticket (the forerunner of the Democratic Party) as vice president in the� election, Hamilton launched a series of public attacks against Burr, stating, “I feel it is a religious duty to oppose his career.” John Adams won the presidency, and in 1797 Burr left the Senate and returned to the New York Assembly.

In the 1800 election, Jefferson and Burr became running mates again. Burr aided the Democratic-Republican ticket by publishing a confidential document that Hamilton had written criticizing his fellow Federalist President John Adams. This caused a rift in the Federalists and helped Jefferson and Burr win the election with 73 electoral votes each.

Under the electoral procedure then prevailing, president and vice president were not voted for separately the candidate who received the most votes was elected president, and the second in line, vice president. The vote then went to the House of Representatives. What at first seemed but an electoral technicality—handing Jefferson victory over his running mate�veloped into a major constitutional crisis when Federalists in the lame-duck Congress threw their support behind Burr. After a remarkable 35 tie votes, a small group of Federalists changed sides and voted in Jefferson’s favor. Alexander Hamilton, who had supported Jefferson as the lesser of two evils, was instrumental in breaking the deadlock.

Burr became vice president, but Jefferson grew apart from him, and he did not support Burr’s renomination to a second term in 1804. That year, a faction of New York Federalists, who had found their fortunes drastically diminished after the ascendance of Jefferson, sought to enlist the disgruntled Burr into their party and elect him governor. Hamilton campaigned against Burr with great fervor, and Burr lost the Federalist nomination and then, running as an independent for governor, the election. In the campaign, Burr’s character was savagely attacked by Hamilton and others, and after the election he resolved to restore his reputation by challenging Hamilton to a duel, or an �ir of honor,” as they were known.

Affairs of honor were commonplace in America at the time, and the complex rules governing them usually led to an honorable resolution before any actual firing of weapons. In fact, the outspoken Hamilton had been involved in several affairs of honor in his life, and he had resolved most of them peaceably. No such recourse was found with Burr, however, and on July 11, 1804, the enemies met at 7 a.m. at the dueling grounds near Weehawken, New Jersey. It was the same spot where Hamilton’s son had died defending his father’s honor in 1801.

There are conflicting accounts of what happened next. According to Hamilton’s “second”—his assistant and witness in the duel—Hamilton decided the duel was morally wrong and deliberately fired into the air. Burr’s second claimed that Hamilton fired at Burr and missed. What happened next is agreed upon: Burr shot Hamilton in the stomach, and the bullet lodged next to his spine. Hamilton was taken back to New York, and he died the next afternoon.

Elgin Watches Serial Numbers

Elgin National Watch Company

In the spring of 1864 half a dozen ambitious Chicago businessmen decided that if Massachusetts could build a factory that built watches – Illinois could, too. Harper’s magazine summed their sentiment perfectly: “It was the genuine, audacious, self-reliant Western spirit.” By August of that year this consortium, including then-Chicago mayor Benjamin W. Raymond, purchased an abandoned farm 30 miles north of Chicago and built a watch factory there. After a year of designing and building the lathes and machines to achieve seemingly impossible levels of precision, a team of watchmakers and mechanical engineers produced their first pocket watch movement, named for mayor “B.W. Raymond.” The watch was exquisite: Elgin National Watch Company was born.

By 1910, word of Elgin’s obsession with precision had spread around the world. Elgin engineers built their own Observatory to maintain scientifically precise times in their watches. Later, their accurate “wristlet” watches proved to be vital to the WWI war effort, helping to fuel a craze back in the states for something called “The Wrist Watch.” By the opulent Jazz Age, if you weren’t displaying the exuberant symmetry of an Elgin wrist watch or carrying a svelte, distinctive Elgin pocket watch, then who were you? Elgin had helped define the American pocket watch as unsurpassed in “Railroad Accuracy.” By 1930, the post Civil War dream factory imagined by a handful of American entrepreneurs had produced 32 million “time machines.”

During World War II, all civilian manufacturing was halted and the company moved into the defense industry, manufacturing military watches, chronometers, fuses for artillery shells, altimeters and other aircraft instruments and sapphire bearings used for aiming cannons.

While their altruism was vital to the war effort, Elgin’s patriotism ironically opened an opportunity for the Swiss. By 1964, after a Mid-Century decade that saw the rise of the elite “Lord and Lady Elgin” series, the original Elgin factory closed. Over the course of a century, the dream factory just north of Chicago had produced half of all jeweled pocket and wristwatches manufactured in the United States.

Logo Created with Sketch.

Elizabeth Strong-Cuevas, Arch II, 1993, aluminum, 144 in x 132 in x 60 in, Unique, Grounds For Sculpture, Gift of the Artist, © Artist or Artist’s Estate Bruce Beasley, Arpeggio III, 2005, bronze, 148 in x 136 in x 63 in, 1/9, Courtesy of the Artist, © Artist or Artist’s Estate Barton Rubenstein, Harmonize, 2016, stainless steel, 16 ft x 3 ft x 3 ft, Unique, Collection of the Artist, © Artist or Artist’s Estate photo: David Michael Howarth Photography

Horace Farlowe, Circular Rest, 1996, Georgia marble, 47 in x 144 in x 150 in, Unique, Grounds For Sculpture, Gift of The Seward Johnson Atelier, © Artist or Artist’s Estate, photo: David W. Steele

Rat’s Pond – Abutting the picturesque patio at Rat’s Restaurant is the Rat’s Pond. The pond is home to a variety of colorful Koi fish, and an ideal environment for the water lilies, iris, and other plantings. Notice also the countless colorful blooms planted near the patio as well as weeping willows and weeping cherry trees framing the far shoreline. photo: David Michael Howarth Photography

Hamilton II DD- 141 - History


Job Posting - Preschool Teacher Intervention Specialist

HCBDD is accepting applications for a Preschool Teacher Intervention Specialist. Please visit the Human Resources tab for more information on the posting and the employment application. Posted 6/15/21

Job Posting - Help Me Grow Home Visitor - Highland

HCBDD is accepting applications for a Help Me Grow (HMG) Home Visitor for Highland County. Please visit the Human Resources tab for more information on the posting and the employment application. Posted 5/18/21

Spring Newsletter now available!

We are pleased to share our Spring 2021 newsletter with everyone. To read the newsletter, visit the More tab and click on newsletters.

Today (1/7/21), Highland County Health Department staff held a closed Point of Dispensing (POD) vaccine clinic at the Highland County Board of Developmental Disability.

We extend sincere thanks to the Highland County Health Department and the Highland County Emergency Management Agency (EMA) for holding this clinic to partner with us towards protection of the health and welfare of the individuals we serve, provider staff and the county board staff.

Exciting news for a great opportunity!

The HCBDD is excited to partner with Southern State Community College to promote the College to Career Experience (CCE) program. For more information about this great opportunity, click below. Posted 8/28/20

USN Ship Hull Classifications

The following is a list of current, officially-recognized, ship hull designations utilized by the United States Navy as provided through the Naval Ship Register.
The classifications are generally representative of a given ship's role such as a Patrol Craft being 'PC'. Others, such as a Dock Landing Ship, are written as 'LSD' and Tank Landing Ship follows as 'LST'. Ships like Destroyers and Frigates carry a double-letter identifier as in 'DD' and 'FF', respectively. To mark the change-over to nuclear-powered propulsion (from conventional power), warship types have introduced 'N'. For example Aircraft Carrier (originally marked as 'CV') became 'CVN'. Nuclear-powered submarines evolved from the 'SS' classification to 'SSN'.
The hull classification precedes the hull number as in USS Seawolf (SSN-21).

ACS = Auxiliary Crane Ship
AD = Destroyer Tender
AE = Ammunition Ship
AFS = Combat Shore Ship
AG = Auxiliary General
AGDS = Deep Submergence Support Ship
AGER = Environmental Research Ship
AGF = Miscellaneous Command Ship
AGM = Missile Range Instrumentation Ship
AGOR = Oceanographic Research Ship
AGOS = Ocean Surveillance Ship
AGS = Survey Ship
AGSS = Auxiliary Submarine
AH = Hospital Ship
AK = Cargo Ship
AKR = Vehicle Cargo Ship
AO = Oiler
AOE = Fast Combat Support Ship
AOG = Gasoline Tanker
AOR = Replenishment Oiler
AOT = Transport Oiler
AP = Transport
APD = High Speed Transport
AR = Repair Ship
ARC = Cable Repair Ship
AS = Submarine Tender
ARS = Salvage Ship
ASR = Submarine Rescue Ship
ATA = Auxiliary Ocean Tug
ATF = Fleet Ocean Tug
ATS = Salvage and Rescue Ship
AVB = Aviation Logistics Support Ship
AVT = Auxiliary Aircraft Landing Training Ship
BB = Battleship
CA = Cruiser, Armored
CB = Cruiser, Large
CC = Cruiser, Battle
CL = Cruiser, Light
CV = Cruiser, Aviation
CG = Cruiser, Guided Missile (conventional propulsion)
CGN = Cruiser, Guided Missile (nuclear propulsion)
CV = Aircraft Carrier (conventional propulsion)
CVN = Aircraft Carrier (nuclear propulsion)
DD = Destroyer Ship
DE = Destroyer Escort
DDG = Destroyer, Guided Missile
FF = Frigate
FFG = Frigate, Guided Missile
FFR = Frigate, Radar Picket
FFT = Frigate For Training
LCC = Amphibious Command Ship
LCH - Landing Craft, Heavy
LHA = Amphibious Assault Ship (General Purpose)
LHD = Amphibious Assault Ship (Multi-Purpose)
LPD = Amphibious Transport Dock
LPH = Landing Platform, Helicopter
LPR = High Speed Transport
LKA = Amphibious Cargo Ship
LSD = Landing Ship, Dock
LSM = Landing Ship, Medium
LST = Landing Ship, Tank
LST(H) = Landing Ship, Tank (Hospital)
MSO = Minesweeper, Ocean
MCM = Mine Countermeasures Ship
MCS = Mine Countermeasures Support Ship
MHC = Minehunter, Coastal
PC = Patrol Craft
PG = Patrol Combatant
PBL = Patrol Boat, Light
PBR = Patrol Boat, River
PCF = Patrol Craft, Fast (Swift Boat)
PGH = Patrol Combatant, Hydrofoil
PHM = Patrol, Hydrofoil, Missile
PTF = Patrol Boat, Fast
SS = Submarine (conventional propulsion)
SSGN = Guided Missile Submarine (nuclear propulsion)
SSM = Midget Submarine
SSN = Submarine (nuclear propulsion)
SSBN = Ballistic Missile Submarine (nuclear propulsion)
SST = Training Submarine

Gallipoli Campaign

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Gallipoli Campaign, also called Dardanelles Campaign, (February 1915–January 1916), in World War I, an Anglo-French operation against Turkey, intended to force the 38-mile- (61-km-) long Dardanelles channel and to occupy Constantinople. Plans for such a venture were considered by the British authorities between 1904 and 1911, but military and naval opinion was against it. When war between the Allies and Turkey began early in November 1914, the matter was reexamined and classed as a hazardous, but possible, operation.

On January 2, 1915, in response to an appeal by Grand Duke Nicholas, commanding the Russian armies, the British government agreed to stage a demonstration against Turkey to relieve pressure on the Russians on the Caucasus front. The Dardanelles was selected as the place, a combined naval and military operation being strongly supported by Winston Churchill, who was then the first lord of the Admiralty. On January 28 the Dardanelles committee decided on an attempt to force the straits by naval action alone, using mostly obsolete warships too old for fleet action. On February 16 that decision was modified, as it was agreed that the shores of the Dardanelles would have to be held if the fleet passed through. For that purpose a large military force under Gen. Sir Ian Hamilton was assembled in Egypt, the French authorities also providing a small contingent.

The naval bombardment began on February 19 but was halted by bad weather and not resumed until February 25. Demolition parties of marines landed almost unopposed, but bad weather again intervened. On March 18 the bombardment was continued. However, after three battleships had been sunk and three others damaged, the navy abandoned its attack, concluding that the fleet could not succeed without military help.

Troop transports assembled off the island of Lemnos, and landings began on the Gallipoli Peninsula at two places early on April 25, 1915, at Cape Helles (29th British and Royal Naval divisions) and at ANZAC (Australian and New Zealand Army Corps) beaches. A French brigade landed on the Anatolian coast opposite, at Kum Kale, but was later withdrawn. Small beachheads were secured with difficulty, the troops at ANZAC being held up by Turkish reinforcements under the redoubtable Mustafa Kemal, who later became famous as Atatürk. Large British and Dominion reinforcements followed, yet little progress was made. On August 6 another landing on the west coast, at Suvla Bay, took place after some initial progress the assault was halted.

In May 1915 the first sea lord, Adm. Lord Fisher, had resigned because of differences of opinion over the operation. By September 1915 it was clear that without further large reinforcements there was no hope of decisive results, and the authorities at home decided to recall Hamilton to replace him by Lieut. Gen. Sir Charles Monro. The latter recommended the withdrawal of the military forces and abandonment of the enterprise, advice that was confirmed in November by the secretary of state for war, Lord Kitchener, when he visited the peninsula. That difficult operation was carried out by stages and was successfully completed early on January 9, 1916.

Altogether, the equivalent of some 16 British, Australian, New Zealand, Indian, and French divisions took part in the campaign. British Commonwealth casualties, apart from heavy losses among old naval ships, were 213,980. The campaign was a success only insofar as it attracted large Turkish forces away from the Russians. The plan failed to produce decisive results because of poor military leadership in some cases, faulty tactics including complete lack of surprise, the inexperience of the troops, inadequate equipment, and an acute shortage of shells.

The campaign had serious political and diplomatic repercussions. It gave the impression throughout the world that the Allies were militarily inept. Before the evacuation had been decided, H.H. Asquith’s Liberal administration was superseded by his coalition government. Churchill, the chief protagonist of the venture, resigned from the government and went to command an infantry battalion in France. In the end, the campaign hastened Asquith’s resignation and his replacement as prime minister by David Lloyd George, in December 1916.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Michael Ray, Editor.

#1 Provider in Online Traffic School, Defensive Driving & Drivers Ed

Because the laws regarding defensive driving courses vary from state to state – and even from court to court – you’ll want to be sure that you ask the court that’s handling your traffic violation about local driver improvement program policies and procedures. For more specific details, select the state where you got a ticket from here.

Are your courses approved by the DMV (or other state agency)?

Course approval varies from state to state. To view approval, select your state from our state selector on the desired course page and look for the state approval seal on the state page. You can also consult your court for further information about approval.

How long does it take to complete the course?

Each course is as long as the state says it must take – and no longer – mostly between 4 and 8 hours. But unlike in a Saturday class, you can take it at your leisure, starting and stopping as often as you like, as you work your way through the material.

Do you provide support?

Yes, we are here for you 7 days a week, if you need help.

Do you offer videos for this course?

In select markets, yes. When you select your state you’ll see the available formats for your course.

What are the payment options?

You can pay with Credit Card, Debit Card, PayPal, and Amazon Payments.

Online Drivers Education Course

What Do our Drivers Ed Courses Cover?

Our chief aim is to make our roadways safer thus, we comprehensively cover the range of knowledge a new driver needs to master, in order to be prepared to begin practicing behind the wheel of a motor vehicle. Of course we go over state traffic laws, road regulations, and defensive driving techniques, as you’d expect, but we also address:

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Our teen drivers ed courses are loaded with tips and techniques on safe driving skills, because we want you to be well prepared to drive safely.

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Can I take my course on my phone or tablet?

Do you offer videos for this course?

In select markets: California, Texas, Florida

What are the payment options?

You can pay with Credit Card, Debit Card, PayPal, and Amazon Payments. In select markets, you can split the cost into two convenient payments.

What kind of Drivers Ed courses do you provide?

We have approved courses for teens (generally between 14 and 17 years old) in many states. If you are older and in Texas or Illinois, the respective state legislatures have passed requirements for adults 18 years and up, requiring or encouraging a course, which we refer to as Adult Drivers Education.

Further, we offer Behind the Wheel professional driving lessons in select markets in California, Georgia, and Texas, through DriversEd.com. Finally, we offer permit tests and driver prep courses to help get you ready to pass the DMV test.

Online Insurance Discount Course

How much can I save on insurance by taking this course?

That depends on several factors, and it varies by market. You’ll need to select your state from here.

How long does it take to complete?

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What kind of Insurance Discount courses do you provide?

Many states allow you to take our course periodically to reduce your insurance premium, no matter your age (esp., Delaware). Furthermore, select markets allow Seniors to take our course and enjoy the benefits of reduced premiums. Select your state of residence to get specific details.

Watch the video: The Real History of Alexander Hamilton