26 June 1940

26 June 1940



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26 June 1940

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Great Britain

French Ambassador to London resigns

Eastern Front

Soviet Union issues an ultimatum to Romania



1959 : The St. Lawrence Seaway has it's official opening when the Royal Yacht Britannia with The Queen representing Canada and US President Dwight D Eisenhower from the United States formally open The St. Lawrence Seaway, creating a navigational channel from the Atlantic Ocean to all the Great Lakes. The seaway, made up of a system of canals, locks, and dredged waterways, extends a distance of nearly 2,500 miles, from the Atlantic Ocean through the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Duluth, Minnesota, on Lake Superior.

1960 : Congress is planning to cut the amount of sugar imported from Cuba and in retaliation Castro has stated Cuba will seize US assets , meanwhile in Cuba campaigns of sabotage against the Castro Regime continue to grow with attacks on the rail system.


Breckinridge Long's Memorandum

While the horrors leading to the killing of millions of Jews and other minorities in Nazi-occupied Europe were unfolding, Breckinridge Long, who was in charge of refugees and immigration issues in the US State Department, devised a strict anti-immigration policy. Long and his subordinates were driven by xenophobia, antisemitism, and a fear of spies who might have infiltrated the US as European immigrants. The document below lays out the purpose of Long’s policy:

June 26, 1940.
A-B - Mr. Berle
PA/D Mr. Dunn

Attached is a memorandum from Mr. Warren. I discussed the matter with him on the basis of this memorandum. There are two possibilities and I will discuss each category briefly.

Non-immigrants
Their entry into the United States can be made to depend upon prior authorization by the Department. This would mean that the consuls would be divested of discretion and that all requests for nonimmigrant visas (temporary visitor and transit visas) be passed upon here. It is quite feasible and can be done instantly. It will permit the Department to effectively control the immigration of persons in this category and private instructions can be given the Visa Division as to nationalities which should not be admitted as well as to individuals who are to be excluded.
This must be done for universal application and could not be done as regards Germany, for instance, or Russia, for instance, or any other one government because it would first, invite retaliation and second, would probably be a violation of some of our treaty arrangements. The retaliation clause is in connection with Germany because it could mean the closing of our offices in almost all of Europe.

Immigrants
We can delay and effectively stop for a temporary period of indefinite length the number of immigrants into the United States. We could do this by simply advising our consuls, to put every obstacle in the way and to require additional evidence and to resort to various administrative devices which would postpone and postpone and postpone the granting of the visas. However, this could only be temporary. In order to make it more definite It would have to be done by suspension of the rules under the law by the issuance of a proclamation of emergency--which I take it we are not yet ready to proclaim.

Summing Up
We can effectively control non-immigrants by prohibiting the issuance of visas unless the consent of the Department to obtained in advance for universal application […] 1


Baseball History on June 26

Baseball Births on June 26 / Baseball Deaths on June 26

Players Born on, Died on, Debut on, Finished on June 26

Baseball history on June 26 includes a total of 50 Major League baseball players born that day of the year, 23 Major League baseball players who died on that date, 56 baseball players who made their Major League debut on that date, and 61 Major League baseball players who appeared in their final game that date.

Bill James, on the same page of the same book we used at the top of this page, said, "But as I began to do research on the history of baseball (in order to discuss the players more intelligently) I began to feel that there was a history a baseball that had not been written at that time, a history of good and ordinary players, a history of being a fan, a history of games that meant something at the time but mean nothing now." To that end, I have created Baseball Almanac. A site to worship baseball. A site by a fan who is trying to tell the history of good and ordinary baseball players.


This Was Brainerd - June 26

John Treichler picked up his second straight feature win in Wissota Street Stocks on Saturday at North Central Speedway. Heat winner Shawn Niemeyer opened an early lead over Wayne Wooden and Treichler, but Treichler, the current points leader, prevailed in a close finish following a restart.

The county board has voted to establish a full-time county attorney position, effective with the next term of office. The vote was unanimous to review the position over the next few years and decide in 1994 whether to continue it. Salary for the full-time position will be set in the budget. Current part-time rate is $56,000 per year.

Of the eight Brainerd police officers eligible for the sergeant's job vacated by Pat Makousky, four aren't interested but four are. This leads the civil service commission to skip naming a temporary sergeant and move directly to a test date to determine a permanent replacement.

Brainerd's Jimmy Brown had a tough day on the mound, but Jerry Lyscio, 15, came on for four innings of relief as the Braves knocked off previously unbeaten C-I. With the game tied at 11-11 in the 11 th inning, Lyscio smacked a two-run double as Brainerd moved to a 16-13 victory.

The county's 1940 population is an official 30,173 after the census showed a 17 percent gain over the 1930 mark of 25,627. The 4,546 gain came despite a decrease in Cuyuna Range villages and townships. Brainerd went from 10,221 to 12,045, and Baxter from 169 to 349.

A force from the Water & Light Board is replacing damaged globes of the ornamental street lights. Hail storms have taken a heavy toll. It will require a dozen and a half top light globes and two dozen side globes to repair the damage.


St Paul's Wartime Near Miss - 1940

But Wren's great masterpiece can also owe its survival to a lesser-known act of bravery, carried out by a Cornish Officer and Scottish Sapper on 12 September, 1940.

A nighttime raid over the City had left one bomb, unexploded, lodged 30 feet deep in the road outside the main west end of the Cathedral. Weighing 4,400lb (2,000kg), the bomb was positioned close to a nearby gas main, which had been damaged by the raid.

Aware the bomb could not be left so close to St Paul's, a team of Royal Engineers, led by Lieutenant Robert Davies, set to work digging it out, all the time not knowing if the huge device would detonate, unquestionably with the loss of their lives and with vast damage to the Cathedral.

Over the course of three days, the team worked to remove the explosive, before placing it on the back of a truck and driving it out to Hackney Marshes. When it was exploded on the Marshes, a crater more than 100ft (30m) across was left - a true indication of its devastating power.

For his bravery in leading the team which disposed of the bomb, Lieutenant Davies was awarded the George Cross, the highest honour available.

The same honour was also afforded to Lance Corporal 'Sapper' George Wyllie, whose George Cross citation read: "The actual discovery and removal of the bomb fell to him. Sapper Wylie's untiring energy, courage, and disregard for danger were an outstanding example to his comrades."

Despite being the third person ever cited for a George Cross (Lieutenant Davies was the second), Wyllie, from Hurlford in Kilmarnock, disappeared from public view and his story only re-emerged in 1984 when his medal came up for sale at auction.

It is not known why the medal was sold, but it was bought by a City banker and donated to the Cathedral, where it remains to this day as a reminder of the bravery of Sapper Wyllie, Lieutenant Davies and the other members of the team of Royal Engineers.

Lance Corporal George Cameron Wyllie GC died on 1 February, 1987, aged 77.

As of today, only 410 George Cross medals have been awarded.

The George Cross medal of Lieutenant Davies is on display at the Imperial War Museum in London.


26 June 1940 - History

Western Front Maps of World War II

Campaign In The West, Plan as Modified to 15 January 1940 Campaign In Norway, Norwegian Dispositions and Initial German Operations, 9 April and May 1940 Campaign In The West, Disposition and Opposing Forces, 1940 Campaign In The West, 10–16 May 1940 Campaign In The West, 16–21 May 1940

Campaign In The West, Situation 4 June 1940 Campaign In The West, Situation 12 June 1940 Campaign In The West, 13–25 June Overlord Plan, Combined Bomber Offensive and German Dispositions, 6 June 1944 Allied Invasion Force and German Dispositions, 6 June 1944 The Invasion of Normandy and Operations, 6–12 June 1944 UTAH Beachhead-VII Corps D-Day Operations, 6 June 1944 OMAHA Beachhead-V Corps D-Day Operations, 6 June 1944 The Capture of Cherbourg and Operations, 13–30 June 1944 Expanding The Beachhead, 1–24 July 1944 St. Lo, German Dispositions Night of 24–25 July 1944

OPERATION COBRA, 25–29 July 1944 St. Lo, The Breakthrough, 25 — 31 July 1944

The Breakout, 1–13 August 1944 The Exploitation, 14 — 25 August 1944 Pursuit to The West Wall, 26 August — 14 September 1944 Operations In Southern France, 15–28 August 1944 & The Invasion Force 21st Army Group Operations, 15 September — 15 December 1944 6th and 12th Army Group Operations, 15 September — 7 November 1944 6th and 12th Army Group Operations, 8 November — 15 December 1944 The General Situation, 15 December 1944 Allied Gains In Europe, June — December 1944 German Ardennes Counter-Offensive, 16–25 December 1944

German Ardennes Counter-Offensive, 26 December 1944 — 16 January 1945 German Ardennes Counter-Offensive, 17 January — 7 February 1945 German Offensive, and Allied Reduction Of Colmar, 1 January — 9 February & Territoral Changes, 16 December — 7 February 1945 The Rhineland Campaign, Operations 8 February — 5 March & Operations 6 — 10 March 1945 The Rhineland Campaign, Operations 11–21 March 1945 & Summary Crossing of The Rhine, 22–28 March 1945

Encirclement of The Ruhr, 29 March — 4 April 1945 Reduction Of Ruhr Pocket and Advance to the Elbe And Middle Rivers, 5 — 18 April 1945 Final Operations, 19 April — 7 May 1945 Allied Gains In Europe, December 1944 — May 1945

Reference
Chris Bishop. (1998). Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Barnes & Noble, Inc.
WWII European Theater


Learn More

The Dominican Republic achieved independence from Spain in 1844. American occupation of the island nation began in 1916, following years of political intervention in the republic. U.S. troops pulled out of the Dominican Republic on June 26, 1924.

On the heels of its victory in the Spanish-American War, the U.S. began to take a more active role in the affairs of Caribbean and Latin American nations that it deemed fell within its sphere of influence. The Dominican Republic’s proximity to the Panama Canal, then under construction, heightened its strategic importance.

Plano de la Ysla de Santo Domingo…, 1755. General Maps. Geography & Map Division


The Influence of Weather


The influence of the weather patterns around Dunkirk are explained in great detail in a superior work Battling the Elements written by Harold A. Winters with Gerald E. Galloway Jr., William J. Reynolds, and David W. Rhyne. For a review of the work see: https://jhupbooks.press.jhu.edu/content/battling-elements

According to Winters and his co-authors Dunkirk and the surrounding area does have both fair and stormy weather. Fast east moving wave cyclones often bring stormy weather but air masses from the Azores can linger over the area and divert storms creating conditions of lingering fair weather. The odds of fair weather begin to decrease in the spring from a high of 40% in April to 30 percent chance in late May, and is even less common during early June. On the twenty-third of May, German tanks were only 10 miles from Dunkirk when they stopped for three days. A halt that has yet to be fully explained although the most popular theory is this involved a battle between Hitler’s generals and Hitler on who really was in charge.

The terrain and weather may also have influenced or decided the question for the Germans. On May 26-27 a large cyclone moved over the Flanders saturating the areas and rendering the flat and swampy area even more unfavorable for tanks. Adolf Hitler decided to remove the tanks and finish the allied forces through air attacks.

In support of Hitler’s reluctance to have tanks in the area of the flanders (See http://www.telegraph.co.uk/comment/5902668/Dunkirk-a-miracle-of-war.html):

When Kleist met Hitler on the airfield at Cambrai a few days later, he had the courage to remark that a great opportunity had been lost at Dunkirk. Hitler replied: "That may be so. But I did not want to send the tanks into the Flanders marshes and the British won't come back in this war."

The rain also hampered the embarkation in the harbor and to make matters worse a storm was headed for the English Channel. However by May 28th the Atlantic storm had shifted course and the lingering effects of the storm created a low ceiling which greatly hampered German air attacks through May 30.

Although beach evacuation was difficult due to the lingering effects of the storm the channel began to calm with low surf and an intermittent breeze carried streams of smoke from the burning port over the beaches providing further concealment. When the skies did clear at times the German air force was able to launch devastating attacks on the harbor.

By June 1st the bulk of the troops had been evacuated and the weather was beginning to change to the German’s favor -- the last troops were evacuated on June 4th.

Winters and his coauthors summarize the remarkable events that occurred at Dunkirk:
"One can correctly conclude that regardless of atmospheric conditions an evacuation would have occurred at Dunkirk. But what other types of weather might have existed in late spring in Flanders and how might they have affected the withdrawal? Two weather patterns are statistically most likely for this coast during late May. The first is a progression of wave cyclones, each bringing stormy weather and followed by strong northwest winds prolonging rough seas, making embarkation from the moles much more difficult and departure directly from the beach nearly impossible. The second is a more assertive dominance of air masses from the Azores high, a process that would bring fair weather at a time of year when days are the longest. This type of weather, with its clear skies and long daylight hours, would have been ideal for repeated attacks by the Luftwaffe."


The 1940 Evacuation of St. Peter Port, Guernsey, to England

In May 1940, as Germany invaded France, fears arose in Guernsey that a German invasion might take place. The closeness of Guernsey to Cherbourg left it wide open to attack by both sea and air. On 11 June, the British War Cabinet considered that Hitler might occupy the Channel Islands to “strike a blow at our prestige by the temporary occupation of British territory”.[1] After some deliberation, the Cabinet decided

“The Channel Islands are not of major strategic importance either to ourselves or the enemy … we recommend immediate consideration be given for the evacuation of all women and children on a voluntary and free basis.”[2]

On 18 June, Guernsey’s Education Council informed teachers that the evacuation of schoolchildren was a real possibility.[3] That same evening, Elizabeth College’s Principal wrote

“We could hear explosions from Cherbourg … parents were getting very anxious and my telephone went day and night.”[4]

On 19 June parents were told that they must register their children for evacuation that very evening. Mothers with infants and men of military age also had the option to leave the island.[5] Parents had to make a crucial decision – whether or not to send their children to England the next morning. There was widespread panic, people rushed to buy suitcases, buried valuables in their gardens and tried to draw their money out of the bank. Some farmers slaughtered their cattle and thousands drove to the local veterinary surgery to have their dogs and cats put to sleep.[6] Mr Godfray, recalled “at the last moment, my friend, who was coming with us, drove off home to shoot his dog”.[7]

Between 20 and 28 June, 17,000 people, (almost 50% of the population), were evacuated from St Peter Port’s harbour, but first to leave were 5,000 children with their teachers and 500 adult helpers. As Winifred West waited to embark, she noticed “evacuees were upset because there were posters up saying ‘Don’t be Yellow, stay at home!’”[8] The Captain of the SS Whistable wrote later,

“Alarm at Guernsey appeared rather acute, and people were presenting themselves faster than they could be embarked.”[9]

On 28 June three German aircraft attacked Guernsey, dropping bombs on the town and machine-gunning the harbour, apparently assuming that the tomato lorries contained ammunition. Many drivers had crawled under their vehicles for shelter, and when the lorries were hit, they were trapped underneath.[10] The only defence the island had was a Lewis gun on the Isle of Sark mail boat, which had recently arrived to take evacuees to England. One passenger, Mrs Trotter, recalled,

“We had just boarded when we heard terrific explosions! 50 minutes of terror followed! I stayed with the children whilst my husband went up top to offer assistance with the Lewis gun.”[11]

The raid continued until 8pm, at which point the Isle of Sark’s Captain asked those around the jetty if they wished to board his boat. He sailed at 10pm with 647 passengers, 200 more than he had originally planned to carry.[12] No more ships were sent to Guernsey, and when Germany invaded the island on 30 June, 17,000 evacuees were cut off from their families for five years.

[1] “War Cabinet Report,” The National Archives, CAB/66/8/27, 11June 1940, 4.

[2] “Cabinet War Room Memorandum,” The National Archives, CAB/66/8/27, 11 June 1940.

[3] Paul Le Pelley, “The Evacuation of Guernsey School children,” Channel Islands Occupation Review, (1988), 25.

[4] “An Account by Reverend W H Milnes”, Elizabeth College Archive Guernsey, August 1940, 1.

[5] Guernsey Star, 19 June 1940, 1

[6] Brian Ahier Reade, “No Cause for Panic: Channel Islands Refugees 1940-45,” (Guernsey Seaflower Books, 1995), 18.

[7] Charles P. Godfray, “How we escaped from the Nazis,” The Keighlian Magazine, (1940), 6.

[8] Interview with Winifred Le Page (nee West), Second World War Experience Centre, (2006).

[9] Reade, No Cause for Panic”, 30.

[10] Martin J. Le Page, “A Boy Messenger’s War: Memories of Guernsey and Herm 1938-1945,” (Birmingham: Kingate, 1995), 16.

[11] An account by Mrs M Trotter, Imperial War Museum, P338, 7.

[12] Reade, “No Cause for Panic”, 26.

About Gillian Mawson

34 Responses to The 1940 Evacuation of St. Peter Port, Guernsey, to England

fascinated by your blog. My daughter’s godmother (sadly deceased) lived on Guernsey at this time. To the best of my recollection she was not evacuated and I wonder what was life like for those who stayed, for whatever reason,perhaps necessity. I cannot clearly remember her maiden name..is there a list of evacuees anywhere ?

Thank you for stopping by the website and glad you enjoyed the blog post. We’ve passed your message onto Gillian and sure she will be able to advise you.

That is my maternal grandmother in this picture (little girl with her hands on her ears) her name was Dulcie ❤️ She passed away some years ago now. Her sister is standing beside her in this picture as well

Hello Angela, unfortunately there is no surviving list of the evacuees’ names in Guernsey. I have interviewed several hundred evacuees since 2008 so if you had any idea whatsoever of your daughter’s godmother’s name I could check my records for you. There are some good books about those who remained behind during the Occupation which can be found on amazon. Two I particularly enjoyed are Occupied Guernsey by Herbert Winterflood, and any of the books by Molly Bihet. I hope this helps. Do take a look at my website at https://guernseyevacuees.wordpress.com/evacuation/ – and you can also contact me through the comment box at the foot of each web page. Gillian Mawson

I am trying to find more information regarding a reta may cohu who was a Guernsey refugee living in Halifax Yorkshire in 1944. She died in childbirth approx aged 21. Would it be likely she was evacuated aged 17 in 1940 ?

My grandad and his brother and two sisters were evacuated from Guernsey . He is now 90 and still going strong . He ended up in cornwall eventually and met my nan and never went home . Although all his siblings did . His name is Arthur Jenner

Hello John thank you so much for your comment. If your granded would like to share his story with me, please contact me via my blog at https://guernseyevacuees.wordpress.com/ – you can send me a private message via a comments box on that page. Gill

Hi
My mother and Uncle were evacuees and sailed on the SS Viking, my mother now 89 who has lived in Cheshire since being evacuated, whilst my uncle is still in Guernsey, my mother recalls all the stories like it was yesterday, sadly she is slipping away now, she has had a tough life but always retained Guensey Grit all through her life an amazing woman, I have so much respect for all the people who suffered being taken from their parents at such a young age. My mother and uncles names are Phyllis Ferbrache and Fred Ferbrache from Vazon area. My mother has your book and many more with regard to the evacuation of Guernsey. I spent ot of my childhood there and class it as my roots. If you have any Information with regard to either my mother or uncle please do let me know

Hello Mark, thank you very much indeed for your comment on this page and the information about your family evacuation. I will check my various records for you over the next few weeks to see if I can find any mention of your family’s names (lots of these are on paper so take time to search through). If I find anything I will contact you again at once. With my very best wishes to you and your Mum. Gill Mawson

Gillian has asked if you could let us know which school your mother was evacuated with to help with her search for information for you? You can email us the details at [email protected]

Hi
My mother who has now unfortunately passed away aged 89 attended Castel school as did my Uncle.
She was finally laid to rest at Castel church on 17th November 2015 back home

Dear Mark I am so very sorry to hear of the loss of your mother. My sincere condolences. I could not find her name in my records anywhere after your first comment on the PTUC website. I asked for her school in the hope that another evacuee from that school might be able to help or the local records office. Gill

Thank you for your efforts Gill much appreciated keep up the good work

I am very interested to find this site. I am looking for any information about Dorothy and Marjorie Falla, who were both Headteachers on Guernsey when they were evacuated with their schools. They both died in 1965 and were clearly much appreciated and respected by the island community. They both trained to teach at Salisbury Training College and I am working at present on the link between the Channel Islands and Salisbury. I am the co author of a book about the college ( see website) and we have included details of the occupation years, as told by former students.
Many thanks!

Hi Jenny, could you please let me know which school your two head teachers were evacuated with from Guernsey and also give me the link to your website? Please do this by sending me a message via my own evacuee blog which can be found at the following link:

I can then check whether I have any information on them in my files

With thanks,
Gillian Mawson

Thanks so much for your reply. Unfortunately we have no record of the schools at which Dorothy and Marjorie Falla were the Heads. It’s possible though that they were in the St Peter Port area as I have seen one of their home addresses and their funerals were both at the Parish Church. This may be insufficient info I realise, but it would be great if something turns up.

In our book (website http://www.inspiredtoteach.co.uk) we have included the rather moving account of Jonny Guille who was on the last boat out, was evacuated to the north of England and then came to train to teach in Salisbury. Her father was the Rector of St Peter Port and both parents felt it their duty to stay on the island during the occupation.

i am looking forward to reading your book very much – it may arrive tomorrow!

Hello again Jenny
I just checked Brian Reade’s book NO CAUSE FOR PANIC about the Channel Islands evacuation. He has a list of some of the evacuated schools near the back of the book and says that a Miss M Falla was in charge of 44 infants from the Hautes Capelles School which evacuated to Spurstow Council School in Tarporley, Cheshire. The school no longer exists. I have not had any contact from evacuees from Hautes Capelles so far but will keep an eye open for any future ones and contact you. Gill

Thank you so much for taking the trouble to do this. We really are grateful and will get in touch again if we find anything else that would interest you. Jenny

My mother, Margaret Jeanette Tanquerel, is an evacuee from Guernsey (1940), A lone girl of 14. The family know very little of that period in her life – until she arrived in North Curry in Somerset to live with a family that owned the local bakery.

My mother resides in Taunton Somerset.

If you are up for interviews my mother (89) is still bright and breezy, albeit not as mobile as she once was. She is very good company and I am sure once the ice was broken she would open up. She remains very bitter about the whole episode.

WE would love to learn more

Hello Tony and thank you for your message. I have sent you two emails and look forward to hearing from you
GIll Mawson

My father Captain James Bridson was master of the Viking, the ship on which so many children were evacuated from Guernsey. He was great family man, loved children and often said “there is no such thing as a bad child”
My father served in WWI as a young sailor and was on the HMS Malaya at the battle of Jutland. It was unusual for a WW! veteran to be still in service in WW2. and for this reason, he was interviewed by, I think, the Daily Express. He was asked what was his most memorable / frightening experience. Expecting to hear Jutland, or Russian convoys he was surprised when father said “The evacuation of the children of Guernsey, I had more than 2000 children on my ship and we had to cross the Channel with enemy planes overhead”


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