Map of Ancient & Medieval Sub-Saharan African States

Map of Ancient & Medieval Sub-Saharan African States



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Ancient Empires of Sub-Saharan Africa

Throughout history, the world has been home to a vast number of cultures and civilizations, ranging from the ancient era to modern times. Some of these societies fill the pages of school history books, while others were relatively small or lacked a formal writing system and therefore have been lost to all but the most diligent archaeologists and historians. Additionally, others were vast empires that ruled over entire continental regions the world over. Sub-Saharan Africa is one of these regions, and is the birthplace of numberous lesser-known, ancient empires.


Methodological Racism

Professor Kusimba began by addressing how crucial it is that people study early Africa, as well as and the long-held prejudices that led to ignoring an entire continent:

Professor Kusimba: Without Africa there would be no humanity. Africa is the birthplace we are all African in a sense. The notion of Africa as a place that lacks agency has been countered by many historians.

TPM: How did this idea that Africa has no agency come to be?

Kusimba: There are Judeo-Christian notions that explain away their agency. On the one hand, you have the “Hobbesian dilemma”: an idea that somehow promoted European exceptionalism vis a vis the ideas for justifying enslavement of African. The big question in our time is how could human beings do this to fellow human beings? I think the discussions of slavery and enslavement, ironically, has focused on only black versus white issues. In reality Europeans have a long history of enslaving each other!

TPM: If you look at the Roman Empire…

Kusimba: Greeks and later Romans sought slaves in central Europe Persians too were equal opportunity enslavers. As were Ancient Africans of the Nile Valley. Today, some medieval scholars deny or only grudgingly accept the African identity of Egyptians. So, the justification of slavery—of Africans arising from their lack of agency and history—is often attributed to the work of German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. He saw Africa as a place that really didn’t merit anything worth talking about.

TPM: And as we know, Hegel was massively racist.

Kusimba: I think, for the most part, it was many 18 th and 19 th century European thinkers. In Africa, often we go back to the late colonial period in the 1960s, to Oxford Regius Professor of History Hugh Trevor-Roper. In writing and thinking about history, historians relied, as many still do, on written documents. With the exception of a few, historians were slow in utilizing anthropological sources in the writing of history. Oral traditions had not yet been incorporated into “history.” So, he rightly, in his time, declared that the only history visible in Africa were European activities. It was a world in which documentary evidence was preciously scarce and historians did not understand those documents written in African languages, like Geez, Hausa, or Swahili.

So, when you think about that period—the 1850s—when Europeans begin to venture into Africa, first as explorers and later as colonizers, there was little documentation. Europeans writing about colonial Africa had to rely on oral texts and, sometimes used Arabic texts where they existed. But even these texts were equally biased. Like Europeans, Arabs had their own prejudices. For them the world was composed of the people of the book, who included Jews, Christians, and Muslims—and everyone else: Kafirs.

So, Arab writers, even the most liberal of the time, they viewed Africans through their own lens. For example, even an uncritical reading of One Thousand and One Nights, ʾalf layla wa-layla, reveals a very racist document. Because the devil incarnate is usually this black creature writings about representations of Africa through the Arabian Nights series are equally as racist.

TPM: So the denigration of Africa was pretty universal.

Kusimba: In Swahili, we say “An empty hand, a dry hand cannot be licked” ‘Mkono mtupu haulambwi. That is to say, when one is, poorer one has a lesser network. You are powerless. Everybody will feel they are justified to step on you as they forge ahead.


World map 50 AD

Primary Sources for East-Hem_050ad.jpg:

World History Maps Inc., Alexandria, VA, 2008. Available at www.WorldHistoryMaps.com.

  1. Euratlas. Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe. Comparison of maps “Europe in 100 AD” and “Europe in 001 AD”.
  2. Joseph Schwartzberg. The Historical Atlas of South Asia.
  3. User:Javierfv1212. Map of the “World_in_50_CE.PNG”. Available on Wikipedia.
  4. Bruce Gordon. Regnal Chronologies.

* North Africa borders and tribal locations are from:

* Sub-Saharan Africa tribal locations are from:

(Bantus, Berbers, Chadians, Cushites, Garamantes, Gur, Khoisans, Mandes, Nilotics, West Atlantic Peoples, etc.)

* Caucasian borders ( Albania , Armenia , Colchis , Iberia , and Lazica)

* Central Asia peoples and borders are derived from:

  1. John Nelson.Interactive Historical Atlas of the World. Map of the “Countries of the World 1/1/050 CE.”
  2. Joseph Schwartzberg. The Historical Atlas of South Asia. Map of “The Satavahana-Saka-Kushana Age 1-300ad”.
  3. David Christian.A History of Russia, Central Asia, & Mongolia, Vol 1. Pgs 210-218.

* Chinese Empire (Han Dynasty) borders:

* Greater India (Including modern Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan):

* Korean borders derive from:

* Pahlava (Indo-Parthian) Empire borders derive from:

  1. John Nelson. Interactive Historical Atlas of the World. Map of “Countries of the World 1/1/045 CE.” . Article about the Indo-Parthian Kingdom.
  2. Encyclopaedia Iranica.Article about the Parthians. (States that the Parthian King Artabanus faced the “Pahlava”

dynasty, possibly the Surena family, along the empire’s eastern border).

* Parthian Empire borders derive from:

* Southeast Asian borders: (Funan, Lâm Áp/Linyi, Malay Kingdoms, Pyu Cities, etc.)

  1. Joseph Schwartzberg. Historical Atlas of South Asia. Map of “Southeast Asia to AD 650”. Pg 30.
  2. The DK Atlas of World History, 2000 edition. Map of “Southeast Asia to 650 CE”. Pg 241.

III – European Information

* European information is derived from:

Note: Much of the information in this map was cross-checked with Bruce Gordon’s Regnal Chronologies.

Roman Empire
Cologne is raised to the status of a city.
Utrecht is founded, and a Roman fortification (castellum) is constructed at the Rhine border in the present-day Netherlands.
Claudius adopts Nero.
In Judea a Roman soldier seizes and burns a Torah-scroll. Procurator Cumanus has the culprit beheaded, calming down the Jews and delaying for two decades the outbreak of their revolt.[1]
In Britain, governor Publius Ostorius Scapula begins his campaign against the recalcitrant Silures of south Wales, who are led by the former Catuvellaunian prince Caratacus. London (Londinium), Exeter (Isca Dumnoniorum), Tripontium (near modern Rugby) and the fort of Manduessedum (near modern Atherstone) are founded (approximate date).
Roman emperor Claudius appoints Agrippa II governor of Chalcis.
Romans build a wooden bridge across the Thames in the London area.

South Asia
The Yuezhi tribes are united under the Kushan leader Kujula Kadphises, thus creating the Kushan Empire in Afghanistan and northern India. (approximate date)

Americas
San Bartolo pyramid is completed around this time.


Trans Saharan Trade Route Map

The darker yellow areas indicate gold fields. In comparison to the other two the kongo is located.

Early Civilizations In Africa Ppt Download

The darker yellow areas indicate gold fields.

Trans saharan trade route map. Trans sahara trade routes. Late medieval land maritime trade routes. Western sahara catalan atlas.

A map indicating the major trans saharan trade routes across west. They go without water for a long time. Camels can carry a great deal of weight.

So it is hard to understand the importance of trans saharan trade without understanding its importance for society in terms of organisation and belief. But the abolition of the slave trade and the development of sea borne trade routes from europe to west africa saw their gradual demise through the. They can keep their footing in sand.

A map showing the late medieval trade routes by land and sea across. The trans saharan trade route from north africa to west africa was actually made up of a number of routes providing a criss cross of trading links across the vast expanse of desert. The future of trans saharan trade.

But camels made it possible. A map of west africa from the 1375 ce catalan atlas. These did exist in ancient times but had their high point much later after the introduction of the camel around 3c ad such that regular trade routes did not develop until the beginnings of the islamic conversion of west africa in the 7th and 8th centuries.

The african trans saharan trade routes. And the social frameworks which emerged with this trade then became influential in shaping the early trans atlantic trade. Transtrans saharan slave trade saharan slave trade between north africa and black africa 7thc ce c ce introduction of the camel and introduction of the camel and the caravan trade routes trans saharan route mutually beneficial for islamic world and savanna states of africa.

During the hey day of trans saharan trade between the 15 th and 18 th centuries all manner of goods were traded through these towns including slaves gold salt ivory leather and ostrich plumes. The route is paved except for a 200 km section in northern niger but border restrictions still hamper traffic. A map indicating the major trans saharan trade routes across west africa c.

This occurred in west africa with the trans saharan trade. Map 1 4 compares songhai the kongo and the kingdoms of the west african forest region. Camels were nicknamed the ships of the desert.

Camels and camel trains opened trade between west and east africa. Crossing the sahara desert was never easy. A map indicating the major trans saharan trade routes across west africa c.

Trans saharan trade routes. The african union and african development bank support the trans sahara highway from algiers to lagos via tamanrasset which aims to stimulate trans saharan trade. Whs connected with the trade routes which linked sub saharan africa with the mediterranean.

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African Migrations and The Influence of Local Climate Change

Professor Schäbitz recruited a team of international scientists to perform a thorough reconstruction of the climate of Ethiopia over the past 200,000 years.

To achieve this goal, they extracted a 1,000-foot (300-meter) core sample from the ancient Lake Chew Bahir basin in southern Ethiopia. After examining the layers of the sample closely, they confirmed that the climate in East Africa was quite warm and wet between 200,000 and 125,000 years ago. It started becoming progressively more arid after that, with the drying picking up speed around 60,000 years ago.

This data fit well with previous discoveries. But using the most sophisticated techniques for analysis available, the scientists were able to identify many smaller cycles of climate change that occurred within the larger time frames. The climate tended to get wetter or dryer than normal at various times, for periods of a few thousand or a few hundred years. In some instances, the fluctuations were even shorter.

"Some of our proxies allow time resolution for specific decades in large sections of the core, which has not been done before for this part of Africa,” Schäbitz explained in a University of Cologne press release announcing his team’s discoveries. “That way we can capture very short-term climate changes representing less than a human lifetime.”

In contradiction to the long-term trend, Schäbitz and his colleagues discovered that the climate in East Africa had become wetter, warmer, and more hospitable again around 70,000 years ago. In fact, this was the last significant wet period the region experienced, according to the core analysis .

Conditions took an abrupt turn for the worse 60,000 years ago, and Schäbitz believes that it was sometime during that 10,000-year window that early Homo sapiens began their African migrations northward and eastward in large numbers.

African migrations were influenced by short climate change cycles, often less than a human lifetime, that forced people to move "up" or "down" depending on where there was more food and water. ( Jo Raphael / Adobe Stock)

“We hypothesize that the evidence of dry-humid climate fluctuations in East Africa found in our drill core had a significant impact on the evolution and mobility of our ancestors,” said Schäbitz. “ Migration out of Africa was possible several times during the last 200,000 years, during periods when the climate was wetter, and has led to the spread of our ancestors as far as Europe.”

The idea is that people would have needed access to plenty of food and water all along the way to complete long-distance trips on foot. Since they might be traveling for months or years, carrying enough supplies with them would have been impossible.

As for the theory that humans might have had no choice but to leave when excessively dry conditions developed in East Africa, Schäbitz points to evidence that shows they did something else.

“It is interesting that just in the period from 60,000 to 14,000 years ago, when the lowlands of East Africa were repeatedly particularly dry, numerous archaeological findings in the high altitudes of the Ethiopian mountains bear witness to the presence of our ancestors there,” he noted. “We suspect that the greater ‘ environmental stress ’ at lower elevations forced this development.”

Rather than flee when times became difficult and resources scarce, early humans living in East Africa simply migrated upward, into the cooler and damper highlands.

A green patch or part of a longer green corridor in the Sahara desert in Morocco, which long ago may have been utilized by homo sapiens on their African migrations heading north. ( Michal / Adobe Stock)


Map of Ancient & Medieval Sub-Saharan African States - History

Figure 1-3 : African-civilizations-map-pre-colonial by Jeff Israel is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 . Map depicting major slave trading regions of Africa.

When the Portuguese first explored the West African coastline, the cultures of African societies were highly evolved and had been so for centuries. In the millennium preceding Portuguese exploration, three large centers of medieval African civilization developed sequentially along the west coast of sub-Saharan Africa. (See Figure 1-3)

The first polity that is known to have gained prominence was Ancient Ghana. Between 500 AD–1250 AD, Ancient Ghana flourished in the southern Sahel north of the middle Niger and middle Senegal Rivers. Ancient Ghana had a civil service, strong monarchy based on a matrilineal system of inheritance, a cabinet, an army, an effective justice system and a regular source of income from trade as well as tribute from vassal kings (Boahen 1966:4–9).

As Ghana declined over the next 200 years, the ancient Mali Empire arose in the same area but descended territorially further along the Niger River. Mali encompassed a huge area stretching from the Lower Senegal and Upper Niger rivers eastward to the Niger bend and northward to the Sahel.

Its great size made Mali an even more diverse state than Ghana. The majority of the people lived in small villages and cultivated rice or sorghums and millets, while some communities specialized in herding and fishing. Trade flourished in the towns, which housed a wide array of craftspeople, along with a growing number of Islamic teachers and holy men. The main commercial centers were its capitals Niani, Timbuktu, and Gao.

Mansa Musa is the most remembered of the kings of Mali. During Musa’s reign 1307–1337, Mali’s boundaries were extended to their farthest limits. There were fourteen provinces ruled by governors or emirs who were usually famous generals. Berber provinces were governed by their own sheiks . They all paid tribute to Musa in gold, horses and clothes. Musa instituted national honors for his provincial administrators to encourage devoted service. He ruled impartially with a great sense of justice. To help in this work he had judges, scribes and civil servants. Musa established diplomatic relationships with other African states, especially Morocco, with whom he exchanged ambassadors.

Mansa Musa is probably best known as the ruler who firmly established the Islamic religion in Mali along with peace, order, trade and commerce. Mansa Musa started the practice of sending students to Morocco for studies and he laid the foundation for what later became the city of Timbuktu, the commercial and educational center of the western Sudan (Boahen 1966:17–22).

Present day Mande people trace their ancestry back to the great 13th century. Learn more about what archeology has uncovered in Jeno-Jenne about the past of the Mande people , Africans who helped settle America during the 17th and 18th centuries (Hall 1992:45).

Around 1375, Gao, a small tributary state of Mali, broke away under the leadership of Sunni Ali and thus began the rise of the Songhai Empire. Over the next 28 years, Sunni Ali converted the small kingdom of Gao into the huge empire of Songhai. Songhai encompassed the geographic area of ancient Ghana and Mali combined and extended into the region of the Hausa states of ancient and contemporary northwest Nigeria.

Mandinka, Wolof, Bamana, (also called Bambara) peoples, and others lived in the western reaches of the Songhai in the Senegambia area. Hausa and Fulani people lived in the region that is now northwest Nigeria. All of these cultures still exist.

Islamic scholars and African oral traditions document that all of these states had centralized governments, long distance trade routes, and educational systems. Between the 13th and 17th centuries Mande and Mande-related warriors established the dominance of Mande culture in the Senegambia geographical region. Throughout the West African savanna where people migrated in advance of the Mande warriors, people spoke mutually intelligible Mandekan languages, and had a strong oral history tradition. In the 18th century people of the Mande culture were highly represented among those enslaved in the French Louisiana colony in North America (Hall 1992).

By the time, Portugal and Spain embarked on exploration and conquest of the Western Hemisphere, Mohammed Askia I ruled over Songhai. Askia completed Mansa Musa’s project to create a great center of learning, culminating with the establishment of the Sankore University in Timbuktu. Sankore teachers and students were from all over sub-Saharan Africa and from the Arabic nations to the east. Leo Africanus, an eyewitness described Sankore University thus:

“[H]ere are great stores of doctors, judges, priests and other learned men that are bountifully maintained at the King’s (Muhammad Askia) costs and charges ([1600] 1896).”

Leo Africanus was born, El Hasan ben Muhammed el-Wazzan-ez-Zayyati in the city of Granada in 1485, but was expelled along with his parents and thousands of other Muslims by Ferdinand and Isabella in 1492. Settling in Morocco, he studied in Fez and as a teenager accompanied his uncle on diplomatic missions throughout North Africa. During these travels, he visited Timbuktu.

As a young man he was captured by pirates and presented as an exceptionally learned slave to the great Renaissance pope, Leo X. Leo who freed him, baptized him under the name “Johannis Leo de Medici,” and commissioned him to write in Italian a detailed survey of Africa. His accounts provided most of what Europeans knew about the continent for the next several centuries.


Indian trade in East Africa

Mosque in a medieval seaport in East Africa (Masjid al-Qiblatayn, Somalia, 600s AD)

At the same time, the Bantu settled seaports on the eastern coast of Africa and began trading with the Arabs and the Indians there. The people of Aksum (which was still Christian), in what’s now Ethiopia, traded with Constantinople. East Africans sold ivory, gold, gum arabic, iron, furs and enslaved people. They bought Indian cotton cloth, glass beads, steel for knives and swords, Central Asian paper, Iranian sugar, carpets, and horses. They even bought Chinese porcelain and silk. Bananas, rice, and sugar came to Africa from India and south-east Asia with these traders.

This trade brought a lot of cool stuff to Africa, but Africans didn’t make as much of their own cloth and iron, now that they could buy better cotton and steel from traders. By 1000 AD, the people of south-east Africa had developed a culture that mixed Bantu and Arab together. People there spoke a language called Swahili that was mainly Bantu but with a lot of Arabic words. Like the Ghanians, many of these Bantu converted to Islam. By 1300, the people of Aksum had also converted to Islam.


Map Of Sub Saharan Africa

The sub sahara is 75 of the length of sub saharan africa. Graph map and compare more than 1000 time series indicators from the world development indicators.

Kenyan Independence Historical Atlas Of Sub Saharan Africa 12

Historically the people living in this region have been geographically isolated from north africa which has had more contact with the arab world.

Map of sub saharan africa. Online tool for visualization and analysis. Simplified climatic map of africa. Since the end of the last ice age the north and sub saharan regions of africa have been separated by the extremely harsh climate of the sparsely populated sahara forming an effective barrier.

This article takes a closer look at the. Sub saharan africa consists of the sahel and the horn of africa in the north yellow the tropical savannas light green and the tropical rainforests dark green of equatorial africa and the arid kalahari basin yellow and the mediterranean south coast olive of southern africa. Lets make it shorter by just saying the sub sahara.

Map of africa the worlds second largest and second most populous continent is located on the african continental plate. It encompasses all african countries that are fully or partially located south of the worlds largest hot desert. Historical map of sub saharan africa 25 march 1953 mau mau uprising.

The map focuses on sub saharan africa the epicenter of the epidemic. Yes i know its not that much shorter than sub saharan africa. It is after all the worlds one and only sub sahara.

Knowing where rates of prevalence are highest and lowest can lead to new strategies for treatment and prevention. Databank microdata data catalog. Browse by country or indicator.

By the early 1950s the failure of native attempts to extract political reforms from the white elites in the british colony of kenya prompted more militant kenyan nationalists to launch the mau mau movement. Sub saharan africa is a term to describe the area of africa that lies south of the sahara. In a campaign of violence against both settlers and natives the mau mau forced the british to declare a state of.

Home foreword introduction overview creative expression culture and society african peoples encounters with others contemporary african states note to researchers list of sub saharan countries publications writings. Therefore specifying sub saharan africa is stupid and wordy. But its an improvement and isnt needlessly wordy.

Sub saharan africa is the term used to describe the area of the african continent which lies south of the sahara desertgeographically the demarcation line is the southern edge of the sahara desert. Sub saharan africa is a term used to refer to approximately 44 countries located south of the sahara desert.

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World map 1 AD

Primary Sources for East-Hem_001ad.jpg:

  1. The DK Atlas of World History, 2000 Edition. Map of “The World in 1 CE”. (Pgs 42-43)
  2. John Nelson. Interactive Historical Atlas of the World since 500BCE. Map of “Countries of the World 1/1/001 CE.”

World History Maps Inc., Alexandria, VA, 2008. Available at www.WorldHistoryMaps.com.

  1. Euratlas. Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe. Map of “Europe in 001 AD”.
  2. User:Javierfv1212. Map of the “World_1_CE”. Available on Wikipedia.
  3. Bruce Gordon. Regnal Chronologies.

* North Africa borders and tribal locations are from:

* Sub-Saharan Africa tribal locations are from:

(Bantus, Berbers, Chadians, Cushites, Garamantes, Gur, Khoisans, Mandes, Nilotics, West Atlantic Peoples, etc.)

Note: Asian information is derived primarily from a combination of these sources:

  1. The DK Atlas of World History. Map of “The World in 1 CE”. Pgs 42-43.
  2. John Nelson. Interactive Historical Atlas of the World. Map of “Countries of the World 1/1/001 CE.”

* Caucasian borders ( Albania , Armenia , Colchis , Iberia , and Lazica)

* Central Asia peoples and borders are derived from:

  1. John Nelson. Interactive Historical Atlas of the World. Map of the “Countries of the World 1/1/001 CE.”
  2. Joseph Schwartzberg. The Historical Atlas of South Asia. Map of “The Satavahana-Saka-Kushana Age 1-300ad”.
  3. David Christian.A History of Russia, Central Asia, & Mongolia, Vol 1. Pgs 210-218.

* Chinese Empire (Han Dynasty) borders:

* Greater India (Including modern Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan):

* Kashmir (Chach) is described in:

* Korean & Manchurian information is from:

* Pahlava (Indo-Parthian) Empire borders derive from:

  1. John Nelson. Interactive Historical Atlas of the World. Map of “Countries of the World 1/1/001 CE.” . Article about the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. . Article about the Parthians. (States King Artabanus of Parthia faced the “Pahlava dynasty”,

possibly the Surena family, along the empire’s eastern border).

* Parthian Empire borders derive from:

* Southeast Asian borders: (Funan, Sa Huynh Culture, Malay Kingdoms, Pyu Cities, etc.)

  1. Joseph Schwartzberg. The Historical Atlas of South Asia. Map of “Southeast Asia to AD 650”. Pg 30.
  2. The DK Atlas of World History, 2000 edition. Map of “Southeast Asia to 650 CE”. Pg 241.

* Southwest Asia (Parthian Empire, Indo-Scythians, Tocharians/Yuezhi, etc.)

  1. Wikipedia. Articles about the Indo-Scythians, the Kushan Empire, and Kushan King Heraios.
  2. The DK Atlas of World History, 2000 edition. Map of “Wars of Parthia & Rome, 53 BCE -217 CE”. Pg 224.

III – European Information

* European information is derived from:

Note: Much of the information in this map was cross-checked with Bruce Gordon’s Regnal Chronologies.

Roman Empire
Tiberius, under order of Emperor Augustus, quells revolts in Germania (AD 1–5).[1]
Quirinius becomes a chief advisor to Gaius in Armenia.
Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus serves in the Armenia campaigns.

Asia
Confucius is given his first royal title (posthumous name) of Lord Baochengxun Ni.
Sapadbizes, Yuezhi prince and king of Kush (Bactria), dies. Heraios succeeds him as king.

Africa
The Kingdom of Aksum, centered in modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea, is founded (approximate date).
Amanishakheto, queen of Kush (Nubia), dies. Her son, Natakamani, becomes king of Kush.

Americas
Moxos ceases to be a significant religious area in South America (approximate date).[clarification needed]
The Teotihuacan culture in Mesoamerica begins (approximate date).
The Olmec 2 phase of the Olmec civilization begins San Lorenzo and La Venta grow in population.


Watch the video: The History of Africa: Every Year