Philip Warwick

Philip Warwick


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Philip Warwick, the only son of Thomas Warwick, the organist at Westminster Abbey and Elizabeth Somerville Warwick, was born on 24th December, 1609. He was educated at Eton College and probably attended Cambridge University before he spent time travelling in France and Switzerland.

Warwick married Dorothy Hutton in 1634. He became secretary to George Goring, a distant relative. He later held the same post under William Juxon, the Lord Treasurer. Warwick was admitted to Gray's Inn on 12th February 1638. (1)

In 1640 Warwick was elected to the House of Commons. He was a supporter of Charles I and blamed the outbreak of the English Civil War on those who envied the "royal prerogative". (2)

Warwick fought as a volunteer at Edgehill, and in 1643 he acted as the king's emissary in two unsuccessful attempts to persuade William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle, to bring his army southwards. In January 1644 he was among those who assembled at the Oxford parliament, whereupon he was deprived of his seat at Westminster in February. He later helped to negotiate the terms of the city's surrender in June 1646. (3)

Warwick described Oliver Cromwell during this period: "He wore... a plain cloth-suit, which seemed to have been made by a poor tailor; his shirt was plain, and not very clean; and I remember a speck or two of blood upon his collar... his face was swollen and red, his voice sharp and untunable, and his speech full of passion." (4)

In the autumn of 1647 Warwick became one of the king's secretaries at Hampton Court Palace. He recorded that the king had little success negotiating with Cromwell and described the only occasion when he saw the king shed tears and then compose himself with characteristic self-control: "they were the biggest drops that ever I saw fall from an eye; but he recollected himself, and soon stifled them". (5) It seems that the king had neglected his personal appearance; his beard remained untrimmed while his clothes were worn and faded... his once luxurious hair had turned almost entirely grey, thus imparting a new shade of melancholy to his face." (6)

Warwick was very distressed when Charles I was executed, "this good Prince was most barbarously and traitorously murdered by his own subjects". He later recalled that when he "thought of dying what cheered him up was the thought that he would meet King Charles again." (7)

In 1660 Charles II knighted Warwick and appointed him as secretary to the Treasury. It is believed he received about £2,000 a year from the post. The following year he was elected to the House of Commons. Over the next fifteen years he made a total of 49 recorded speeches and was appointed to 258 committees. Gilbert Burnet thought Warwick "an incorrupt man, and during seven years management of the Treasury made but an ordinary fortune out of it". (8)

According to his biographer, David L. Smith: "Only very occasionally did Warwick deviate from the prevailing court line. His commitment to the established church led him to oppose greater toleration for either Catholics or protestant nonconformists. In 1670 he was among those appointed to consider the renewal of the Conventicles Act, and two years later he opposed Charles II's declaration of indulgence. However, he was soon won over by the king's conciliatory response in February 1673, even though it defended the royal suspending power and did not actually withdraw the declaration." (9)

In 1678 Warwick wrote A Discourse on Government (published posthumously in 1694). In this treatise he argued that the monarchs of England "remain absolute though limited’, and that the king was ‘an absolute, though not an arbitrary monarch" and regarded England as "a limited and mixed monarchy" but condemned Parliament for questioning his authority during the English Civil War. (10)

Sir Philip Warwick died on 15th January 1683.

In 1640 Warwick was elected to sit for both Radnor borough and New Romney, Kent, in the Long Parliament, and chose to serve for the former.... He fought as a volunteer at Edgehill, and in 1643 he acted as the king's emissary in two unsuccessful attempts to persuade the earl of Newcastle to bring his army southwards. In January 1644 he was among those who assembled at the Oxford parliament, whereupon he was deprived of his seat at Westminster on 5 February. At Oxford he lodged in rooms at University College, and he later helped to negotiate the terms of the city's surrender in June 1646.

He wore... his face was swollen and red, his voice sharp and untunable, and his speech full of passion.

Portraits of Oliver Cromwell (Answer Commentary)

Military Tactics in the Civil War (Answer Commentary)

Women in the Civil War (Answer Commentary)

(1) David L. Smith, Philip Warwick : Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(2) Philip Warwick, Memories of the Reign Of King Charles I (1701) page 8

(3) David L. Smith, Philip Warwick : Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(4) Christopher Hill, God's Englishman: Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (1970) page 60

(5) Philip Warwick, Memories of the Reign Of King Charles I (1701) page 326

(6) Peter Ackroyd, The Civil War (2014) page 304

(7) Diane Purkiss, The English Civil War: A People's History (2007) page 17

(8) Gilbert Burnet, History of My Own Time (1724) page 174

(9) David L. Smith, Philip Warwick : Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(10) Philip Warwick, A Discourse on Government (1694) pages 19-20


WARWICK, Sir Philip (1609-83), of Westminster and Frognal, Chislehurst, Kent.

b. 24 Dec. 1609, o.s. of Thomas Warrock, organist of Westminster Abbey, by Elizabeth, da. and coh. of John Somerville of Aston Somerville, Warws. educ. Eton c.1623 travelled abroad (France and Switzerland). m. (1) settlement 2 Apr. 1634, Dorothy (d. 6 Aug. 1644), da. of Matthew Hutton of Marske, Yorks., 1s. (2) 1647, Joan, da. of Sir Henry Fanshawe of Ware Park, Herts., wid. of Sir William Boteler, 1st Bt., of Teston, Kent, s.p. suc fa. 1651 kntd. June/July 1660.1

Offices Held

Sec. to Ld. Treas. Juxon 1636-41, Ld. Treas. Southampton June 1660-7 clerk of the signet 1638-46, May 1660-d.2

Commr. for sewers, Lincs. 1639, Kent 1640, Sept. 1660, Westminster Aug. 1660 j.p. Kent July 1660-d., commr. for corporations 1662-3 asst. Rochester Bridge 1665-77, warden 1665, 1672 commr. for assessment, Mdx. and Kent 1673-80, recusants 1675.3

Biography

Warwick’s father, of Herefordshire origin, combined his post at Westminster Abbey with that of organist of the Chapel Royal. Warwick passed from the service of the courtier Lord Goring to that of Bishop Juxon when he became lord treasurer in 1636. In the Long Parliament he voted against Strafford’s attainder. He fought as a volunteer at Edgehill, and carried out two missions to the northern Royalists but he was disabled only when he took his seat in the Oxford Parliament. After helping to negotiate the capitulation of the city in 1646, he acted as Charles I’s secretary at Hampton Court and Carisbrooke. After the King’s execution he compounded at £241 on the Oxford articles for property in Westminster, Kent and Gloucestershire. He held aloof from conspiracy, although he was imprisoned on suspicion in 1655. However, he was a moderate, who advocated just before the Restoration that the King should meet the Presbyterians half-way, and even that ‘the King ought to give away the crown, church and sequestrated lands’, much to Mordaunt’s indignation. In December 1659 he was employed by the King’s party to negotiate with Lambert, and acted as treasurer of a large sum of money collected in England for the royalist cause. Hyde commended his loyalty, writing that ‘the King knows very well Mr Warwick’s affection and zeal for his service and his abilities to promote it’.4

After the Restoration, Warwick resumed his post as clerk of the signet, and acted as secretary to the Treasury some months before Southampton’s appointment as lord treasurer. Burnet wrote that Southampton

He failed to regain his Welsh seat at the general election of 1661, but he was successful after a contest at Westminster, where the abbey interest was entirely at his disposal through his friend, Dean Earle. Listed as a friend by Lord Wharton, he was an active Member of the Cavalier Parliament, with 49 recorded speeches and 258 committees, including the committee of elections and privileges in every session. He was among those ordered to make a list of the Members receiving the sacrament at the corporate commission on 26 May, to attend the conferences on the King’s marriage and the letter from the Scottish Parliament, and to recommend expunctions from the Journal of the Long Parliament. He was named to all the committees for the Clarendon Code, and took the chair for two important bills in the first session, those for the security of the King’s person and against tumultuous petitioning. On 18 June he reported to the House a serious shortfall in the revenue, amounting to more than £265,000 out of the £1,200,000 budget, and he was the first Member appointed to the committee to recommend means by which it might be best and most effectually supplied. During July he carried to the Lords the tumultuous petitioning bill, the ecclesiastical commission bill, and two bills for recovering public moneys levied under the Commonwealth. On 25 July he was ordered to bring in a bill confirming several statutes made in the Convention, including the Navigation Act. After the autumn recess he was among those sent to ask the King when he would receive a petition for a proclamation requiring the disbanded soldiers to leave London. In 1662 he helped to manage conferences on the bill for executing those under attainder, on regulating the customs, and on public accounts not covered by the Act of Indemnity. He was chairman for the bill to encourage the cultivation of flax and hemp, and, together with William Prynne and Sir Thomas Meres, amended a Lords’ proviso to the bill for relief of loyal and indigent officers.5

In 1663 Warwick obtained leave to build a house for himself on the emplacement of the old road from Charing Cross to St. James’s Palace, as he had ‘daily occasion to attend the Court, and is much inconvenienced by having no lodgings near’, and his son was granted two reversions to office. When Parliament met he was sent to ask the lord treasurer to stay process against John George. He had again to acknowledge a deficiency in the revenue, which, even with the hearth-tax, amounted to only £978,000. In an attempt to forestall complaints of extravagance he went on to announce that the Government intended to reduce ordinary expenditure to £1,086,000, and asked for a further supply to bridge the gap. But the Commons were now in a ‘peevish’ mood they convinced themselves that the existing revenue could be improved by increased efficiency to within a few thousands of Warwick’s revised budget, and refused to vote any permanent increase in taxation. He was sent to ask the King for the strict enforcement of the Navigation Act, and helped to manage the conference of 23 July on the bill to prevent abuses in the collection of excise. Listed as a court dependant in 1664, he took the trouble before the session to explain the Government’s financial problem to Samuel Pepys, who found him after over two hours’ conversation on the subject ‘a most exact and methodical man, and of great industry’, and on further acquaintance praised his goodness and piety. He was appointed to the committee for the conventicles bill and helped to manage a conference, and was again sent to Southampton, this time to ask him to take steps for preserving the timber in the Forest of Dean. Holding that the subsidies were a most ridiculous and most unequal tax, he hoped to persuade Parliament in the autumn to vote an assessment of £70,000 a month for the duration of the war with the Dutch, despite the undertaking in the Act of 1661 to abandon this form of taxation. He served on the joint delegation from both Houses to thank the King for his defence of English interests, and as chairman of the committee to revise county tax assessments for the royal aid (as the new tax was to be described) he presented four reports. On 26 Sept. 1666 he gave the House a full statement of public accounts. He was again among those ordered to take note of those who received the sacrament, and he was appointed to the delegation to present the address against French imports. He also carried two further messages to Southampton asking for the transfer of some £3,000 from the Exchequer to the loyal and indigent officers fund.6

In May 1667, with the death of Southampton, whom he attended devotedly to the last, Warwick’s official connexion with the Treasury ceased. Burnet described him as an incorrupt man, who made ‘but an ordinary fortune’ during the seven years in which he had managed it unsupervised. He appears to have gained over £2,000 a year from the post but the charge in A Seasonable Argument that ‘he got artificially from Treasurer Southampton and the King £40,000’ must be grossly exaggerated. He retained his clerkship of the signet, and his activity in the House was little reduced, though he was of course less prominent. In the next session he was appointed to the committees to inquire into restraints on juries, to prevent the growth of Popery, and to legalize the transfer of Exchequer bills. He was chairman for a bill to amend the Navigation Act by naturalizing prize ships. At the instance of Southampton’s nephew Robert Spencer he vigorously denied that Clarendon had usurped the functions of the lord treasurer, nor could the customs farm have been obtained by bribery, ‘because the bargain did not deserve it’ but he was named to the committee to banish and disable the fallen minister. Under examination by the public accounts committee, according to William Garway, he ‘brought in £60,000 pensions, and in a little book "for secret service" in one folio there wer fifty items for secret services for Members of this House'. On 11 Feb. 1668 he was sent to ask the lord chief baron to expedite a trial in Exchequer concerning the Forest of Dean. He opposed the concessions proposed for nonconformists:

If we could so relax the law as not to loose the law he would willingly condescend to some indulgence. . If I prove that a man need not scruple anything in the Church, why should he be further indulged? Would have care taken, that after indulgence they got not a footing to destroy the whole. 'Tis an unreasonable thing to pass a vote that some condescensions may be before we know what.

Although he had been no friend to Sir George Carteret* while in office, he defended him in the debate of 20 Nov. 1669 on the report from the public accounts commission, largely out of concern for the prerogative, and helped (Sir) Robert Long* to prepare an answer to the commission's charges that money had been diverted from the war. In March 1670 he was among those appointed to consider the renewal of the Conventicles Act and to manage a conference on a naturalization bill. He took the chair for a private bill on behalf of Southampton's widow. In April 1671 he helped to manage a conference on the Barbados sugar duty and to prepare reasons why the Lords should not be allowed to alter the rates of taxes. He was listed as a court supporter by both the Government and Opposition at this time.7

On 24 Feb. 1673 Warwick expressed his satisfaction with the King's answer to the address on the Declaration of Indulgence, even though it defended the suspending power. 'It answers all your ends', he said, 'and he would have it recorded, and the King thanked'. On the proposal for relief for Protestant dissenters, he displayed his staunch Anglicanism declaring that he 'would not have ecclesia in ecclesia, imperium in imperio', and moving that 'there may be a test upon persons to sit in this House, that the Church may not be destroyed'. Nevertheless he was prepared to modify the abjuration of the Covenant, and was named to the committee for the bill of ease but when it was reported he declared himself 'perfectly' opposed to it. He also helped to prepare an address in the state of Ireland but the measure which probably interested him most in this session was the bill for better observation of the martyrdom of 'his master' Charles I. On 29 Jan. 1674 he was added to the committee for the general test bill. In April 1675 he brought a bill for restraint of buildings, inmates and enclosures near London and Westminster, which was 'long debated', but the House ordered its withdrawal, and appointed a committee, to which he was named, to bring in a new billor bills. 'What offended them', wrote Sir Edward Dering*, 'was the power licensing reserved to the King.' In the same month Warwick was named to the committees to draw up a bill for the suppression of Popery and to consider the bill disabling Papists from sitting in either House of Parliament. He now resided chiefly in Chislehurst, having sold his Westminster house, and in September he received the government whip. He was also one of the 'country gentlemen' consulted by Danby before the autumn session. On 21 Oct. he was given leave to bring in a bill to establish a suburban 'court of conscience' for small claims. He was named to the committees for the bills to appropriate the customs to the use of the navy and to prevent the growth of Popery. His name was on the working lists and the list of government speakers, but Sir Richard Wiseman* wrote to Danby: 'I wish your lordship would think of some way to make this gentleman industrious and hearty in the service'. A pension of £100 to his son was no doubt intended to achieve this. Warwick devoted the long recess to writing his Memoirs up to the Restoration 'from a frail memory and some ill-digested notes'. Published posthumously, they aroused Burnet's scorn, and cannot compete with Clarendon in philosophical profundity or Burnet himself in psychological insight but his account of the King's captivity and execution is of value.8

When Parliament met again in 1677 Shaftesbury marked Warwick 'thrice vile' and the author of A Seasonable Argument alleged that he 'never lies more than when he profeses to speak the sincerity of his heart'. He was appointed to the committees on the bills to recall British subjects from the French service, to prevent illegal exactions, and to provide the Protestant education of the royal children. His bill for a suburban 'court of conscience', with its jurisdiction now confined to the city and liberties of Westminster, received its second reading in 2 Apr., and he was the first Member named to the committee. Outraged by 'the trumpet of sedition' sounded by (Sir) Edward Bayntun* in the debate on foreign policy of 23 May he asked: 'What will the world think of us, to fall so particularly into a diffident [i.e. mistrustful] answer to the King's speech? Though we are his great council, we are not his directors.' Nevertheless he was named to the committee to draw up an address for an alliance against France. During the summer Danby considered appointing Warwick as auditor of the Exchequer in place of the mutinous Sir Robert Howard*, ostensibly to assist him in the Treasury but probably only as a stop-gap until Peregrine Osborne* came of age. In any event Howard retained the office. On the 29th anniversary of Chalres I's execution Warwick took the chair in the grand committee set up to consider the solemn reburial of the King's remains, and it continued to meet at invervals up to 22 Mar. 1678, but no legislation resulted. On the following day he acted as teller for the only time, in favour of a motion to hear counsel for the Hon. William Russell*, who had inherited Southampton's Bloomsbury estate, against the proposed tax on new buildings. Ironically enough, his lifelong loyalty to the Stuarts was now subjested by the French advance on the Continent to its severest strain. 'I have feared the greatest of the French King these forty years', he told the House 'and in my last master's time they had great correspondence in Court, and found casements to look in at.' He was appointed to the committee to summarize the alliances on 30 May, but he does not seem to have attended, for when Henry Powle* reported four days later Warwick said:

Being unacquainted with anything of this till this morning, I am not able to say much to it. It falls short, I confess, of what I expected. As I have ever had Mr [Henry] Coventry* in great esteem, so now, most especially for hsi frankness in this matter. I beleive that if ever the nation was in danger, it is now. . I speak with no relation but to my prince and country equally in my eye and I would addrss the King to resume the treaty, and I beleive all the powers in Christendom will stand by us if we enter into a war with the King of France [sic].

Warwick must have been deeply moved to forget to style Louis XIV 'the French King', as English claims required, but his sentiments were acceptabke to the House that he was not called to order. Warwick's maternal grandfather had been sentenced to death in 1583 for undertaking the assissination of Queen Elizabeth, and it is hardly surprising that Warwick gave credence to the revelations of Titus Oates. 'I believe Popery is a confedaracy against God and against the kingdom', he said, and he was among those appointed to search the cellars after information had been received that the Papists would make another attempt to blow up Parliament. He carried up Lord Petre's impeachment, and voted for the impeachment of Danby, though he was on both lists of court supporters. He did not stand again and died on 15 Jan. 1683. He was buried at Chislehurst, the only member of the family to sit in Parliament. besides the Memoirs, his Discourses of Government, written in 1678 in defence of the royal prerogative and the 'peaceable, sober, truly Christian Church of England doctrine', were published after the Revolution.9


Philip Warwick Kt (1609 - 1683)

Philip Warwick was born on 24 Dec 1609 the son of Thomas Warrock, organist of Westminster Abbey, by Elizabeth, daughter of John Somerville of Aston Somerville, Warwickshire [1] . His place of birth was Warwick House, Westminster [2] .

He was educated at Eton and admitted to Gray's Inn [1] [2] .

He married (first) Dorothy (died 06 Aug. 1644), daughter of Matthew Hutton of Marske, Yorkshire and (second) Joan, daughter of Sir Henry Fanshawe of Ware Park, Hertfordshire., the widow of Sir William Boteler, 1st Bt., of Teston, Kent [1] [2] .

He was MP for New Radnor Boroughs from 1640 to 1644, and for Westminster in 1661 [1] .

He supported the Royalist cause in the Civil War and was knighted in 1660 [1] .

He was mentioned in the Memoirs of Lady Ann Fanshawe [3] .

He was recorded in the Visitation of Kent, 1663-1668 [4] .

He died on 15 Jan 1682/1683 and was buried on 17 January at St Nicholas, Chislehurst, Kent [1] [2] . [5]

His will was dated 04 Jul 1682 with two Codicils dated respectively 29 Nov 1682 and 09 Dec 1682, the will being proved on 05 Apr 1683 [2] .

Monument

His memorial inscription has been recorded as follows [6] :

"Here lies in expectation of a joyful resurrection through Jesus Christ our Saviour, the only mortal part of Sir Philip Warwick, Knt, who departed this life the 15th Jan’y, 1682, in the 74th year of his age. He was an acceptable servant to K. Charles I. in all his extremities, and a faithful one to King Charles II. Here also with his body lies that of his dear wife, Joan Fanshaw, of Ware Park, a lady of sincere virtue and piety, first married to Sir William Boteler, Bart. With whom is interred the body of Philip Warwick, Esq. the only son of the said Sir P. Warwick, who died an Envoy, 1682, from the King of Great Britain to the King of Sweden having served both crowns with great honour and fidelity."


Bill on 7 Jan 2014 • Link

Sir Philip Warwick was son of Thomas Warwick, organist of St. Peter's Westminster, of which church the former was some time a chorister. He was educated at Eton school, and finished his studies at Geneva, under the care of Diodati, well known for his Commentaries on the Scriptures. He had much the same advantages of knowledge, and was witness of many of the same facts, with the historians before-mentioned and yields to none of them in candour and integrity. He served the worthy earl of Southampton in the office of secretary to the treasury an employment which he had enjoyed in the former reign. He acquitted himself in this office with such abilities as did honour to them both: but the earl's enemies insinuated, that all the honour was due to the secretary, and usually called him "Sir Philip the Treasurer." The most considerable of his works is his "Memoirs, or Reflections upon the Reign of King Charles I." This book was published by Dr. Thomas Smith, the learned writer concerning the Greek church. But the doctor's preface, of some pages, having been not altogether pleasing to the administration at that time, it has been suffered to stand in very few copies. He died the 15th of January, 1682.
---A Biographical History of England. J. Granger, 1775.


Memoires of the Reign of King Charles I. . Together With a Continuation to the Happy Restauration of King Charles II. By Sir Philip Warwick, Knight. . the Original Manuscript . The Third Edition (Book)

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Philip Warwick - History

Philip Warwick, was a Stuart ambassador to Sweden and son of Sir Philip Warwick (1609-1683). Not much is known of Warwick's early life. In 1680 he was appointed envoyé extraordinaire on a mission to the Swedish king, Karl XI in order to renew the Anglo-Swedish alliance of 1664. This was to be both a commercial and a defensive alliance. Warwick took leave of Charles II in July 1680 and is noted to have arrived in Stockholm with his secretary John Robinson on August 29. Although he did not obtain an audience with the Swedish king until a month and a half later, his time in Sweden was initially taken up by other commercial issues. Most of the information on the mission comes from Warwick's correspondence with the Secretary of State for Britain, Sir Leoline Jenkins. It was not only regular, but also confirms that Warwick's role extended beyond the commercial sphere. Indeed, Warwick's duties included interceding on behalf of British merchants who fell foul of Swedish and other foreign authorities in the Baltic region. By the end of November 1680 at least five of Warwick's letters had been read out before Charles II and the Committee of Foreign Affairs in London.

Early in this correspondence Jenkins warned Warwick of the malicious rumours he would encounter about Britain and its government, and he was specifically instructed to refute such allegations. Jenkins also forwarded a missive from Charles II in favour of aldermen John Jeffreys and Mr James Lucie, two London merchants who were engaged with the Tobacco and Tar company based in Stockholm. In addition Jeffreys and Lucie wrote directly to Warwick concerning the settlement of accounts for some tobacco they had sent to a certaion Andrew Onkell on behalf of Mr Thomas Cutler. As well as mercantile affairs, Sir Leoline Jenkins kept Warwick up to date on negotiations between Sweden and France in Germany at the time, regarding troops in Pomerania.

As Jenkins had himself served as an envoy to the Swedish court in 1679. he suggested important Swedish contacts for Warwick to meet, facilitating the continuation of a healthy relationship between Britain and Sweden. The Swedish Chancellor, Bengt Oxenstierna, in particular proved an honest and sincere man who supported Warwick's mission. Jenkins also asked Warwick to pass on his greetings to Sir Johan Leijonberg and Mr Olivencrantz, the latter man being Jenkins' counterpart in Sweden. Warwick finally obtained an audience with the Swedish king on 15 November. Although it is not known exactly what was discussed there, a letter to Karl XI survives detailing Warwick's instructions as received directly from King Charles II. The Stuart king was keen to maintain and cultivate friendly and commercial relations between the two kingdoms, and added that he would welcome a Swedish envoy at his court to discuss the renewal of the lapsed treaty of 1664.

Relations with the Tobacco and Tar company were not easy as the claims of one English merchant reveal. Robert Tigh had tried to sell the company some tobacco in 1675, but the wares had been seized and confiscated without being paid for. Eventually Jenkins suggested that company should be closed, albeit with royal sanction, and it seemed that neither the Swedes nor the Dutch contested this suggestion. Although Warwick's letters were replete with information on tolls and customs as well as shipping lists, Jenkins expressed a dissatisfaction with the poor response he had received from certain British merchants in London to Warwick's work in Sweden. Their lack of interest was blamed on a preoccupation with domestic issues. This did not deter Warwick from supporting both English and Scottish merchants in Sweden, as when he sought compensation for Joseph Newcome, who had lost 400 riksdaler worth of goods to the Swedes.

However, by January 1681 the issue of obtaining the Swedish king's interest in reviving the 1664 commercial alliance between the two kingdoms re-emerged, along with the continued hopes of ratifying a new treaty. Part of the conditions involved included the granting of special trade privileges for Sweden in Portsmouth, in return for reciprocal privileges for Stuart subjects in Gothenburg. Although the Swedes did not seem overly enthusiastic about these proposals, Warwick twice received confirmation from Jenkins that his work in Sweden was highly valued in England. He also appeared to have formed a trusted relationship with Mr Olivencrantz using the Swede as an intermediary in order to protect his correspondence. Warwick also continued with his defence of mostly English merchants in their various difficulties with local authorities, as many of his letters to Karl XI show.

The cases Warwick took on in Sweden varied. For example, John Eyre and Robert Tigh (already noted above) were resident merchants in Helsingör, Denmark, who sought Charles II's intervention to obtain long overdue payment for goods they had sold to Sweden. The outcome of this request has not been determined, although Warwick soon received the Stuart king's written recommendation for some English merchants, probably the men in question. Several of the cases concerned complaints dating from the 1670s, which had already been taken on by Charles II, but which appeared not to have resulted in a favourable reaction from the Swedish king. This was the case with Richard Daniel, a merchant based at Riga (then a Swedish possession), who had complained in 1677 that he was being forced into becoming a burgess of the town - and therefore liable to local taxes - after marrying a local girl there. Toward the end of the year, in November, Warwick again received petitions from some merchants, Robert Bloome in London and William Smith in Stockholm, regarding unpaid debts from Sweden. However, Warwick was not only in Sweden to represent the English interest, but all Stuart subjects, be they English, Irish or Scots. He therefore entered into correspondence over land disputes also in Livonia which Major James Bennet [SSNE 1612], a Scottish soldier, who claimed the land by right of inheritance through marriage. There does not appear to be much information on Warwick's activities during 1682, which was apparently his last full year in Sweden. In February he intervened on behalf of two English merchants based at Narva, named Gilberts and Bacon, who were in a dispute with a Muscovite, but again the exact details remain elusive.

Warwick's ultimate aim was to recreate and strengthen the commercial ties between Britain and Sweden. He had already been informed in October 1681 of a defensive alliance being negotiated between the Netherlands and Sweden. British participation had also been sought, but merely of a financial nature to fund Swedish-Dutch relations. Warwick wanted to promote a purely British-Swedish connection although Jenkins expressed the possibility for other European powers to join these negotiations. It was particularly feared that France would take any opportunity to destroy British trade. In a letter to Chancellor Oxenstierna in June 1682, Warwick clarified some of the British concerns when he passed on Charles II's desire to totally separate the issues of a friendly confederation between Sweden and Britain, from that of a commercial alliance between the two kingdoms. Warwick's mission was bolstered by the arrival of an additional envoy in July who had been authorised specifically to discuss such an alliance.

By January 1683, Warwick informed the Swedish court and government that he had obtained Charles's permission to return home to England, in order to deal with a family matter. He fully intended to return to his duties in Sweden as soon as he could. In the meantime Warwick's secretary, John Robinson [SSNE 1115] continued to work toward the formation of a British-Swedish alliance. However, there was to be no return to Sweden for Philip Warwick. He died sometime after his return to England, upon which Robinson assumed his role as official Stuart envoy to Sweden.

Sources: Swedish Riksarkiv, Anglica 527, Konferensprotokoll 24/1/1683 Swedish Riksarkiv, Anglica 522, Engelska beskickningars memorial 1591-1692 Calender of State Papers Domestic 1679-1680, 1680-1681 PRO, SP/95/11-12, SP/104/153 Lauderdale Papers, Add. MSS. 37985 Swedish Riksarkiv, Svenske Sändebuds till Utländske Hof och Deras Sändebud till Sverige, 1841, p.85 L. Bittner and L. Gross, Reportorium der diplomatischen vertreter aller lander, vol. 1, 1648-1715 (Oldenburg and Berlin, 1936), p.199 G. M. Bell, A Handlist of British Diplomatic Representatives 1509-1688 (London, 1990).

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Philip Warwick - History

In 1927, the son and daughter of Colonel Robert Hale Ives Goddard gave one of the family estates to be a state park in memory of their father. Colonel Goddard (1837-1916) was the son of William G. Goddard, first Chancellor of Brown University and Charlotte Rhoda Ives Goddard. Through his mother’s family, he was related to the Ives family who partnered with the Browns of Providence to form the banking and merchant firm of Brown and Ives. He was a Brown University graduate in 1858.

When the Civil War broke out, just a few years after his graduation, Robert Goddard left the safe confines of the family counting house and enlisted as a private soldier and fought in the first Battle of Bull Run. Mustered out of service, he joined again and became an aide to Rhode Island General, Ambrose Burnside, taking part of the battles of Fredericksburg, Cumberland Gap, Blue Springs, and Campbell Station. He was in the sieges of Knoxville and Petersburg and was present at Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Court House. As a northern businessman whose company’s narrow self-interest was intimately tied to southern cotton he could have elected a ‘wait and see’ stance. His wealth and position could have bought him a safe seat to observe the war he chose, instead to meet it head on.

As a military aide to Governor Burnside he returned to active service in 1874 and later retired with the rank of Colonel. As a progressive reformer he joined the Lincoln Party in 1906 and served in the state senate as an independent in 1907 and 1908. He ran as a Democrat in 1907 for the open United States Senate seat against Samuel P. Colt and George P. Wetmore. He died in 1923.

With the gift of his estate for park purposes in 1927, Rhode Island received nearly 490 acres of land on Ives Road in the Potowomut section of Warwick. The park formally opened in 1930.The gift included a 33-room Victorian-style mansion, known as “The Oaks,” a smaller home for the state’s horticulturalist, a carriage house, a large barn, and several smaller buildings.

The gift of Goddard State Park provided a number features for the Metropolitan Park System. Nestled on Greenwich Cove and Greenwich Bay, Goddard Memorial provided geographical balance to the system. It was more convenient for citizens living in Kent County. While both Lincoln Woods and Goddard offered horse-back riding, Goddard had salt water swimming, a better opportunity for sailing, and it offered golfing. Although it did not own its carousel outright, it had a Loof carousel which had once been at nearby Rocky Point. The Goddard mansion was used for an “insect zoo,” and the estate, which had been developed as a private arboretum, sported fine groves of local tree species and some of the best ‘specimen’ trees in New England. Much of the landscape had already been laid out in a park setting. Lastly, its acquisition pointed in the direction of the possibility of adding Atlantic beaches to the park system, one which foretold the buying of Sand Hill Cove (1929) and Scarborough (1937).

The history of the land comprising Goddard Memorial State Park goes back to the early settlement of Warwick. In King Philip’s War, 1675-1676, most of the homes in Samuel Gorton’s Shawomet Purchase, which stretched from the shores of Narragansett Bay across modern day Kent County to the Connecticut boundary, were burned to the ground. As in the case of Providence, the two decades following the war witnessed as slow period of growth until the beginning of the 1700s. The part of Warwick where Goddard Memorial State Park is located has been known as Potowomut. It was the one of the ancestral homelands of the Greene family of Rhode Island which produced two colonial governors and two prominent Revolutionary War personalities, Major General Nathanael Greene and Colonel Christopher Greene. Nathanael Greene’s father had a prosperous iron forge near the state park which gave the name Forge Road to the area. The first Greene, James, settled in 1684.

In 1792, Nicholas Brown, one of the four famous Brown brothers of Providence, bought up indebted lands of Loyalist Richard Greene, and the farm in question passed to his daughter Hope Brown upon her marriage to Thomas Poynton Ives. These acres comprised most of Potowomut Neck, and the Brown/Ives country estate built there acquired the name, “Hopelands.” In time, the property passed to Hope and T.P.Ives’ daughter, Charlotte Ives Goddard. In the following generation, the next daughter, Hope Brown Ives and her husband, Henry C. Russell built the mansion, known as “the Oaks,” which became the centerpiece of the estate given for use as the park. It was Mr. Russell who collected specimen trees from all over the world, some 62 deciduous species and 19 varieties of evergreen. Despite storm ravages, such as those inflicted in the Hurricane of 1938, the arboreal beauty of the park has survived to later generations. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said of the 1876 Victorian mansion, “the Oaks,” which burned in April of 1975.

One of the popular features of the park was its carousel. It made its appearance in 1931 shortly after the park opened. The carousel was a product of the Charles I.D.Loof factory of Greenpoint, Brooklyn in 1890. It was set up a year later in Lakeside Park, Syracuse, New York and later moved to another park in that city. In 1901, the carousel was dismantled and sent for repairs to another Loof factory in the Riverside neighborhood of East Providence. Here, near Crescent Park which served as a kind of working ‘show room’ for Charles Loof the carousel was refitted before going to Rocky Point amusement park in 1907, entertaining thousands until 1929.

Two years later, the carousel was installed at Goddard Memorial State Park and twirled successfully until it was sold and dismantled in 1973. Intended for a California destination, it ended up in Jacksonville, Florida. The empty pavilion has since been refurbished by the park and is available for events and private parties.

The person most responsible for overseeing the fortunes of this ride for nearly three quarters of a century was Joseph L. Carrolo. As a young man he worked for the Loof organization and managed the carousel in Syracuse, then Rocky Point, and finally at Goddard Memorial. At age 100, in 1978, Carrolo was known as the ‘Carousel King.’ In 1958 he had carousels in Oakland Beach, Lake Mishnock, Goddard, and Lake Nipmuc in Mendon, Massachusetts.

Over the years, Goddard Memorial State Park performed many functions for the state as one of Rhode Island’s most popular recreational attractions. During the 1936 three hundredth anniversary celebration, The Tercentenary, Goddard hosted a Native American village and was the home of state history pageants. Dozens of new picnic fireplaces, built by the Depression-era, WPA, dotted the grounds. The fireplaces were built by un-employed young men of the Civilian Conservation Corps, who labored throughout the parks and forests of Rhode Island, playing a major role in the massive clean-up in the wake of the great hurricane of ’38. From 1936 until 1940, the state’s park division headquarters was at Goddard Memorial.

Today, following numerous repairs and upgrades over nearly eighty-five years, Goddard Memorial State Park continues to adhere to the wishes of the donors ‘for the public use and for the enjoyment, recreation, and education of the public.


5 Controversial Things Prince Philip Said To Black people

Prince Philip, the departed Duke of Edinburgh, will be laid to rest at the weekend, in what will be the culmination of week-long national mourning in the United Kingdom. Since his death on April 9, the former Royal Consort has been celebrated all across the world.

Prominent among the choir of commemorations were the words of African leaders. Interestingly, when Philip married into the Windsor dynasty that rules Great Britain, no African country, with the exceptions of the never-colonized Ethiopia and Liberia, were sovereign nations. Just like the British Crown itself, what most Africans saw in Philip changed with their independence and a commitment to the British Commonwealth. He was no longer a part of the overlordship he was now a friend.

The African perspective on Philip changed but we cannot necessarily say Philip the man did. Throughout his 74 years in the eye of the global public, the prince was known to utter controversial and outright racist comments. This feature was considered a part of his character and the leeway was bigger for two reasons: one, the moral awakening that is often dismissively called political correctness was largely not in force and two, he was royalty and was allowed to get away with it.

But history is there to be learned for the purpose of the present and the future. So here, down memory lane are some of the things that Philip said to Black people:

You are a woman, aren’t you?

In 1984, on a state visit to Kenya, Philip was presented with a gift by a Kenyan woman dressed in traditional attire. Then in his 60s, Philip took a look at his gift and then the woman and asked: “You are a woman, aren’t you?”. It barely made a scratch on global headlines but it was one of the things the British press memorialized.


Philip E. DeNegri

Philip E. DeNegri of Warwick passed away on Friday, Aug. 7, 2020, of complications from a tick born illness.

The son of Philip J. and Grace Parker DeNegri, he was born on Feb. 22, 1939, in the Bronx.

Phil graduated from Power Memorial High School in the Bronx and served proudly in the Army National Guard. He attended the New York City Fire Academy and proudly served the New York City Fire Department for 33 years, first as a fireman, then as a lieutenant for more than 10 years.

Phil raised his family in Warwick and lived there for 49 years.

He is survived by his wife Patricia of 53 years daughter Stacey (DeNegri) Grace and her husband Dan of Avon, Indiana, and son Philip J. DeNegri and wife Kristy of Harwich, Mass. He is also survived by relatives in Arizona, Georgia and New Jersey. Phil was predeceased by his parents and sister Loretta McCarren of Calhoun, Ga.

After retirement, Phil was an active member of many organizations including the NYC Retired Firefighters of Orange County, FDNY Holy Name Society, FDNY Columbia Association, St. Joseph’s Holy Name Society (of which he was also a Eucharistic Minister), a 4th degree member of the Warwick Valley Knights of Columbus, American Rose Society and was Vice President of the Newburgh Rose Club.

He is a past member of Therapy Dogs International with his beloved dog Roxy. Together they had many happy fulfilling years of visiting residents and spreading joy at Schervier Pavilion and Mount Alverno.

Phil truly enjoyed spending time with his family and friends and was known by all at the Florida Seward Seniors as quite the joke teller. He enjoyed telling stories and making people laugh.

He was an extremely caring man and spent many hours visiting and speaking with those that were suffering or felt very alone. Phil was an avid gardener, lifelong Yankees fan and an orchid enthusiast.

He was a jack of all trades and could repair most anything he was presented with.

He was a wonderful husband and father, always putting his family first. Whether it was coaching his kids on their many sports or spending summers on Cape Cod, family was always his priority.

His hard work, kind smile and sense of humor will be remembered by all who knew him.

Visitation was held Aug. 10 at T.S. Purta Funeral Home, 22 Glenmere Ave., Florida.

A Funeral Mass was held Aug. 11 at St. Joseph Church, 20 Glenmere Ave., Florida.


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