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The Prehistory research It is one of the scientific fields that arouses the most interest, given the large number of questions about the vicissitudes of the societies of this period of Humanity, as distant in time as it is exciting.
On some occasions, in addition, studies of this nature motivate discoveries that even exceed the scope of prehistory.
This is the case, for example, of 23 9-millimeter shells discovered in 1991 in the atrium of the Menga dolmen (Antequera, Málaga), which according to a 2016 investigation would derive from “murders"Perpetrated shortly after the July 1936 coup by members of the Republican side, before the rebels exercised their" repressive violence. "
This is also the case with a 2019 study entitled ‘The tholos of La Pastora. A new perspective from the archaeological analysis of its construction', what delves into the investigation of this megalithic enclave of Valencina de la Concepción (Seville), as the maximum exponent of the great human settlement that during the Copper Age welcomed the environment now corresponding to said municipality and Castilleja de Guzmán.
This work, signed by the municipal archaeologist of Valencina de la Concepción, Juan Manuel Vargas; Luis Miguel Cáceres from the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Huelva and Carlos P. Odriozola from the Department of Prehistory and Archeology at the University of Seville, uses the “called archeology of architecture or archaeological analysis of historical buildings", for advance knowledge of the aforementioned tholos, discovered in 1860.
In their report, these authors detail the constructive aspects of the tholos of La Pastora, characterized by a 44.36-meter-long corridor, concluding that this Chalcolithic construction was built with materials from an area “at least 30 kilometers around Valencina”, such as quartz-sand or granite, and was “raised in a uniform manner, without phasing or recognizable formal distinctions ”.
The «alterations» of the Tholos de la Pastora
However, these researchers identify some “recent vintage interfaces", Pointing to the"alterations” rush in megalithic construction on dates associated with its discovery around 1860, as for example in "the corridor area where it was initially accessed"Into the tholos.
Refering to circular chamber of this funerary monument, 2.6 meters in diameter, the authors of this work pay special attention to a detected alteration "by omission”Of the same in the texts corresponding to the first investigations of this enclave.
Specifically, Juan Manuel Vargas, Luis Miguel Cáceres and Odriozola point out the niche that “adorns"The camera, because"nothing is said about”Her in the historical writings of the first investigators of this Chalcolithic construction. In more detail, they allude to the publications of Francisco María Tubino y Oliva in 1868, Carlos Cañal y Migolla in 1894 and Hugo Obermaier in 1919.
Before this "omission"Of the aforementioned niche of the chamber in such texts, the authors of this work do not consider it plausible that it happened to Tubino and Cañal"unnoticed” said element of the tholos when they studied the same back in the 19th century.
And it is that in the case of Tubino, for example, when writing his article of 1868 “focuses on details as particular as the presence of small seashells on the ground or between the upper blocks of the chamber itself", An end that in the opinion of these researchers does not agree with the fact that it did not indicate"nothing”Of the niche despite its visibility.
"Elements other than structural uniformity"
Further, the stratigraphic analysis of the sector of the chamber corresponding to the niche throws according to this study "elements that clearly differ from the structural uniformity of the rest”Of the enclosure.
“To form the niche hole, it was necessary to rotate the bottom block, hiding the reddish area that appears as the visible face in the rest, leaving the upper block bare on one of its sides and with a visible separation line between the tone reddish color of the area ready to be seen and that part that was originally hidden", Explain these authors regarding"place that the extracted block should have occupied”From the camera to shape the aforementioned hole.
Moreover, the stratigraphic analysis reflects according to these researchers that the sides and base of the hole made in the chamber were covered by “a different rig” from the rest of the enclosure, using cut-outs of slabs and vertical masonry, “an arrangement that only it is verified ”in the so-called niche.
And as if that were not enough, the “binder material"Used in the niche is"a very compact mortar in a dark gray tone, different from the purified brownish clays”Identified in the masonry from tholos original factory.
For all this, Juan Manuel Vargas, Luis Miguel Cáceres and Odriozola see “Clear" what "after 1919", The year in which Hugo Obermaier published the results of his research in Valencina without mentioning said niche,"this intervention took place probably with the intention of placing an image that would Christianize the place", A practice that these authors recall"has been recognized in different places and is especially profuse in the Portuguese Alentejo”.
Europa Press journalist, collaborator of "Sevillanos de Guardia" in Onda Cero Radio and collaborator writer in MRN Aljarafe.