Marsyas, detail from NAM, Athens, 215.

Marsyas, detail from NAM, Athens, 215.

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Marsyas, detail from NAM, Athens, 215. - History

IKEA (Swedish: [ɪˈkêːa] ) is a Swedish founded, Dutch multinational conglomerate that designs and sells ready-to-assemble furniture , kitchen appliances and home accessories, among other useful goods and occasionally home services. Founded in Sweden in 1943 by 17-year-old Ingvar Kamprad, IKEA has been the world's largest furniture retailer since 2008. [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] The brand used by the group is an acronym that consists of the founder's initials (Ingvar Kamprad), and those of Elmtaryd, the family farm where he was born, and the nearby village Agunnaryd (his hometown in Småland, southern Sweden). [11] [12]

The group is known for its modernist designs for various types of appliances and furniture, and its interior design work is often associated with an eco-friendly simplicity. [13] In addition, the firm is known for its attention to cost control, operational details, and continuous product development that has allowed IKEA to lower its prices by an average of two to three percent.

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INGKA Holding B.V., based in the Netherlands, owns the IKEA Group which takes care of the centers, retails, customer fulfillment, and all the other services related to IKEA products. [18] [15] At the same time, the IKEA brand is owned and managed by Inter IKEA Systems B.V., based in the Netherlands, owned by Inter IKEA Holding B.V. Inter IKEA Holding is also in charge of design, manufacturing and supply of IKEA products. IKEA Group is a franchisee that pays 3% of royalties to Inter IKEA Systems. [15] [18] For purposes of accounting and taxation, the IKEA Group and the Inter IKEA Group claim that they are unrelated parties. However, they are both controlled by the Kamprad family and close associates of the family. [15]

As of March 2021 [update] , there are 378 IKEA stores operating in 30 countries [19] and in fiscal year 2018, €38.8 billion (US$44.6 billion) worth of IKEA goods were sold. [20] All IKEA stores are operated under franchise from Inter IKEA Systems B.V., most of which are operated by IKEA Group, some of them are operated by other independent owners. [21]

The IKEA website contains about 12,000 products and there were over 2.1 billion visitors to IKEA's websites in the year from September 2015 to August 2016. [22] [23] The group is responsible for approximately 1% of world commercial-product wood consumption, making it one of the largest users of wood in the retail sector. [24]


On 7 June 415 BCE, various statues of the god Hermes were desecrated in Athens. The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE) had been raging for decades as one of the biggest civil wars in Ancient Greece, and the Athenians prepared for the expedition to Sicily in 415 BCE. However, a few priests warned against it, and others spoke of disastrous omens. The Athenian statesman Alcibiades (450-404 BCE), on the other hand, spoke of oracles and counter-omens. Regardless, Athens was preparing for the expedition confident of their safety and hoping to acquire a huge revenue source in Sicily. However, on the morning of 7 June 415 BCE a general cause of alarm occurred in Athens hermai, statues of the god Hermes, throughout the city had their faces smashed and their phalluses hacked off. This event is not without controversy and its impact on Athens and Alcibiades remains important to this day as a prelude to the disaster in Sicily.

Was there an epidemic of suicide among young girls in ancient Athens?

There's an old article written by Dr. Carl Gustav Jung where he recounts a story from ancient Athens, saying this:

In Athens four or five hundred years before Christ there was even an epidemic of suicide among young girls, which was only brought to an end by the decision of the Areopagus that the next girl who did away with herself would be exhibited nude upon the streets of Athens. There were no more suicides.

I've been searching around for a source to this so that I can read more, but the only mention of it seems to be in the same news article. Does anyone have any additional insights into the credibility of this story, or where it may come from?

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Hi. So just to preface this: suicide and attitudes towards suicide are certainly not a subject specialism of mine, so it might be the case that this is indeed based on an historical event that I am just not aware of, and if that is the case then I would be glad if someone more knowledgeable than myself could correct me or clarify my thoughts. But with that in mind: I’m unaware of any “epidemic” of young girls committing suicide in 5th-4th century Athens as Dr Jung suggests. My guess is that perhaps Jung may have either misunderstood some detail in the ancient literature (which I’ll explain below), or has made an anachronistic mistake and is referring to an event from a later period that I am unaware of.

But since he specifically mentioned “four or five hundred years” BC I thought I could briefly explain attitudes to suicide in Ancient Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries BC, and why this story is very unlikely based on how victims of suicide were perceived and treated both culturally and legally.

The main emphasis of this story is the desecration of the young girl’s body by displaying her naked publicly as a deterrent. Publicly exposing the bodies of criminals was indeed a practice used by the Athenians, a specific pit in Athens called the Barathron was used as the spot for condemned criminals to be disposed of. This state sanctioned condemnation of the body was important: not only were the proper funeral rites for the dead not performed for the criminal, but it also symbolically ensured that the “pollution” they had caused by committing such a heinous crime was physically removed from the city itself and disposed of (more on this below). More specific to Jung’s anecdote, Plato (Laws, 871D) when discussing different forms of crimes and applicable punishments suggests that people who had committed a murder against their own kin (which the Greeks regarded as worse than other murder) should be executed and their bodies thrown out naked in a crossroads outside of the city limits. Though Plato is theorising about justice he is very likely using Athenian law as the basis of his ideas. So as you can see a specific punishment for criminals condemned of capital offences could include publicly humiliating the condemn’s body by leaving it naked and exposed without the proper funeral rites having been performed.

So far Jung’s anecdote is not completely out of the bounds of possibility, but of course we are dealing with suicide victims, not murderers or criminals. And though suicide was a serious taboo, for the Ancient Greeks there seems to have been a very clear and important distinction to make between the two. For example, we are told by Plutarch (Themistocles, 22) that in the Barathron “public officers cast out the bodies of those who have been put to death, and carry forth the garments and nooses of those who have dispatched themselves by hanging”. This detail is incredibly important because Plutarch distinguishes between the bodies of the criminals and the objects of the suicide victims being disposed of. For the Greeks any sort of violent death, whether that be murder, war or suicide appears to have been considered to cause a “pollution”, Robert Parker defined this pollution as “a kind of institution, the metaphysical justification for a set of conventional responses of life through violent death” (1983, pp. 120). For the Greeks when a violent death occurs the pollution must be driven out through religious purification - this explains why the body of a murderer for example is thrown in the Barathron, as a way of ridding themselves of this polluter. But Plutarch’s point suggests that a victim of suicide was themselves not considered the polluter, but instead the object with which they took their own life. We see this elsewhere in Greek literature, for example Timachidas of Lindos tells us of a corpse found hanging in a temple of Athena in Rhodes: to clear the pollution the oracle of Delphi told the priests to replace the roof beams that the victim used to hang themselves with to purify the temple again.

This distinction of pollution is incredibly important: it essentially means the suicide victim is considered (largely) blameless, and hence why the victim themselves is not polluted. We see this a lot in Greek Tragedy also where suicides are a common denouement to the story: tragic heroes and heroines such as Ajax and Jocasta kill themselves to escape very human issues such as social ridicule, loss of honour, regret over their previous crimes etc. - and the audience is asked to pity - not revile - their actions.

So with this in mind, it would be incredibly unlikely that the poor girl who committed suicide would be so publicly shamed and ridiculed. Though of course suicide was a taboo and looked down upon by most writers who discuss it, the historical evidence seems to suggest that the victim was considered innocent and the body of a suicide victim would not be desecrated.

There is one exception to this and that is a speech given by the statesman Aeschines, where he mentions off-hand that “when sticks and stones and iron, voiceless and senseless things, fall on any one and kill him, we cast them beyond the borders - and when a man kills himself, the hand that did the deed is buried apart from the body”. (Against Ctesiphon, 244) Which seems to suggest that the hand of a suicide victim would be cut off during burial as this was considered the polluter. This is the only reference to this practice that we have, and so it’s not clear how widespread this practice was, but even in this you can still see that Aeschines makes a clear distinction between the hand itself and the individual by comparing it to inanimate objects - the victim themself is still blameless.

To further prove how unlikely Jung’s anecdote would be: Plato tells us that before Socrates took his own life by drinking hemlock, a punishment he was forced into by the Athenian courts, he took a bath to spare the women who would tend to his body the trouble of it later. Socrates seems to have expected that he would be given proper funeral rites after his death. So clearly even institutional suicide (i.e suicide as a form of punishment by the state) was still regarded as suicide and not as execution, and they will not receive the same fate as other criminals executed by the state.

The only thing I can think of that may validate Jung’s anecdote is whether this was an extreme exception taken by the Areopagus in a time of crisis. As I said I am unaware of any “epidemic” of such a kind in Athens in the fifth or fourth centuries, but we are told by Lysias, when recounting the horrors of the government of the Thirty Tyrants in 403 BC, that they banned those who they executed or forced into suicide from being given funeral honours (Lysias, Against Eratosthenes 12.96). This is the only comparable time I can think of where a suicide victim was denied funeral rites, but this was an extreme exception and Lysias uses this as proof of the government’s ruthlessness, suggesting suicide victims are never normally treated this way.

So to sum up: I’m unaware of any period in the fifth-fourth centuries BC in Athens where an epidemic of suicides occurred, nor would the treatment of the victim’s body be in-line with contemporary attitudes to suicide victims nor legal punishments for those who committed suicide. As I said at the beginning, my guess is Jung may have misunderstood something he read on Ancient Greece, is presenting an apocryphal story, or he’s relating a different period or an event that’s just out of my area of expertise!

Parker, R. (1983) “Miasma: Pollution and Purification in Early Greek Religion”, Oxford.

Garrison, E. P. (1991) “Attitudes towards suicide in Ancient Greece”, Transactions of the American Philological Association, vol. 121, pp. 1-34.

U.S. Marines in Vietnam: 1973-1975 The Bitter End

U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1954-1964, The Advisory and Combat Assistance Era, 1977

U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1965, The landing and the Buildup, 1978

U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1966, An Expanding War, 1982

U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1967, Fighting the North Vietnamese, 1984

U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1969, High Mobility and Standdown, 1988

U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1970-1971, Vietnamization and Redeployment, 1986

U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1968 U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1971-1973

Functional Histories Series

Chaplains with Marines in Vietnam, 1962-1971, 1985 Marines and Military Law in Vietnam: Trial by fire, 1989

Anthology and Bibliography

The Marines in Vietnam, 1934-1973, An Anthology and Annotated Bibliography, 1974, reprinted 1983 revised second edition, 1985


Major George R. Dunham U.S. Marine Corps

Colonel David A. Quinlan U.S. Marine Corps





U.S. Marines In Vietnam

The Bitter End

1973 -1975

Volumes in the Marine Corps Vietnam Series

Operational Histories Series

U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1954-1964, The Advisory and Combat Assistance Era, 1977

U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1965, The landing and the Buildup, 1978

U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1966, An Expanding War, 1982

U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1967, Fighting the North Vietnamese, 1984

U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1969, High Mobility and Standdown, 1988

U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1970-1971, Vietnamization and Redeployment, 1986

In Preparation

U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1968 U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1971-1973

Functional Histories Series

Chaplains with Marines in Vietnam, 1962-1971, 1985 Marines and Military Law in Vietnam: Trial by fire, 1989

Anthology and Bibliography

The Marines in Vietnam, 1934-1973, An Anthology and Annotated Bibliography, 1974, reprinted 1983 revised second edition, 1985

Library of Congress Card No. 77-604776 PCN 190-003110-00

For use by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402

This is the ninth volume in a nine-volume operational and chronological historical series covering the Marine Corps' participation in the Vietnam War. A separate functional series complements the operational histories. This volume details the final chapter in the Corps' involvement in Southeast Asia, including chapters on Cambodia, the refugees, and the recovery of the container ship SS Mayaguez.

In January 1973, the United States signed the Paris Peace Accords setting the stage for democracy in Southeast Asia to test its resolve in Cambodia and South Vietnam. The result was not a rewarding experience for America nor its allies. By March 1975, democracy was on the retreat in Southeast Asia and the U.S. was preparing for the worst, the simultaneous evacuation of Americans and key officials from Cambodia and South Vietnam. With Operation Eagle Pull and Operation Frequent Wind, the United States accomplished that task in April 1975 using Navy ships, Marine Corps helicopters, and the Marines of the III Marine Amphibious Force. When the last helicopter touched down on the deck of the USS Okinawa at 0825 on the morning of 30 April, the U.S. Marine Corps' involvement in South Vietnam ended, but one more encounter with the Communists in Southeast Asia remained. After the seizure of the SS Mayaguez on 12 May 1975, the United States decided to recover that vessel using armed force. Senior commanders in the Western Pacific chose the Marine Corps to act as the security force for the recovery. Marines of 2d Battalion, 9th Marines and 1st Battalion, 4th Marines played a key role in the events of 15 May 1975 when America regained control of the ship and recovered its crew, concluding American combat in Indochina and this volume's history.

Although largely written from the perspective of the III Marine Amphibious Force, this volume also describes the roles of the two joint commands operating in the region: the Defense Attache Office, Saigon, and the United States Support Activities Group, Thailand. Thus, while the volume emphasizes the Marine Corps' role in the events of the period, significant attention also is given to the overall contribution of these commands in executing U.S. policy in Southeast Asia from 1973 to 1975. Additionally, a chapter is devoted to the Marine Corps' role in assisting thousands of refugees who fled South Vietnam in the final weeks of that nation's existence.

The authors, Major George Ross Dunham and Colonel David A. Quinlan, individually worked on this volume while assigned to the History and Museums Division, Headquarters Marine Corps. Colonel Quinlan, who is now retired and resides in Hartford, Connecticut, began the book in 1976. Major Dunham, who recently retired and resides in Dunkirk, Maryland, inherited his co-author's work and completed the majority of the volume during his tour from 1985 to 1990. Both authors are graduates of the U.S. Naval Academy and have advanced degrees. Colonel Quinlan, who was an infantry officer, has a juris doctor degree from George Washington University (1979) and Major Dunham, who was an aviator, has a master of arts degree in history from Pepperdine University (1976).


Brigadier General, U.S. Marine Corps (Retired) Director of Marine Corps History and Museums

Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, to assure the survival and success of liberty.

John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address 20 January 1961

U.S. Marines in Vietnam: The Bitter End, 1973-1975 is a story about commitment, sacrifice, and the price America and its ally, South Vietnam, paid. It answers no questions, places no blame, and offers no prophetic judgement, but provides an historical account of the end of a state and the beginning of new lives for those fortunate enough to escape that upheaval. This description of the United States Marine Corps' involvement at the bitter end of America's military presence in Southeast Asia also traces the effects of uncontrolled fear on a society fighting for its survival.

The effect of fear on the fighting man on the battlefield was no different in 1975 in South Vietnam than it was more than 2,400 years earlier, when the Athenians fought to defend their beloved city. In preparing his Marines and sailors for battle in the Peloponnesian War of 429 B.C., and anticipating their fear of death, Phormio of Athens told them:

Fear makes men forget, and skill which cannot fight is useless.

The South Vietnamese Armed Forces in the spring of 1975 were rendered useless as a fighting force. No level of training or skill, no program of Vietnamization, no amount of money could have reversed the rampant spread of fear that engulfed all of South Vietnam in March and April of 1975. Incredible acts of courage temporarily checked the nation's slide into oblivion, at places like Xuan Loc and Bien Hoa, but fear ruled the day. Its only antidote, courageous leadership at the highest levels, rapidly disappeared as the NVA war machine gained momentum. As one senior leader after another opted to use his helicopter to evacuate rather than to direct and control the defensive battle, strategic retreats turned into routs and armies turned into mobs of armed deserters. Amidst all this chaos, the U.S. Marine Corps aided its country in the final chapter of the Vietnam War, the evacuation of American citizens, third-country nationals, and as many South Vietnamese as conditions permitted.

To describe those events accurately, the authors used, for the most part, original sources, including interviews of many of the participants. A debt of gratitude is owed to many people for the compilation and collation of that material. In particular, we thank the other Services and their respective historical agencies for their contributions, with a special note of appreciation due to Dr. Wayne W. Thompson and Mr. Bernard C. Nalty, both of the Office of Air Force History, and Dr. Edward J. Marolda of the Naval Historical Center. A large portion of the available source material was provided by the staff of the Marine Corps Historical Center and for that contribution we are very appreciative. In particular, we thank the Historical Center librarian, Miss Evelyn A. Englander, and archivist, Mrs. Joyce Bonnett, and their staffs the Reference Section (Mr. Danny J. Craw-ford and staff) the Oral History Section (Mr. Benis M. Frank and Mrs. Meredith P. Hart-

ley) and the Publications Production Section (Mr. Robert E. Struder, Mrs. Catherine A. Kerns, Mr. W. Stephen Hill, and Corporal Andre L. Owens III). Of course, history cannot be read until it has been written, and rewritten, and for that demanding task of editing, we thank the Chief Historian, Mr. Henry I. "Bud" Shaw, Jr. the head of the Vietnam Histories Section, Mr. Jack Shulimson and our colleagues in the section who had to read our work in its most primitive state (Lieutenant Colonel Gary D. Solis, Major Charles D. Melson, and Mr. Charles R. "Rich" Smith). To those whose names are too many to mention here, we extend our sincerest gratitude for loyalty and special acts of assistance in this project, and for those who reviewed our manuscript and contributed comments and pictures, we offer you a book bearing your imprint, and our thanks. The authors, however, are responsible for the content of the text, including opinions expressed and any errors in fact.

We would like to salute every Marine and American who served in Vietnam and dedicate this book to those who paid the ultimate price for the "survival and success of liberty." In particular, we commend the sacrifice of the four Marines who died in South Vietnam on 29 April 1975: Lance Corporal Darwin D. Judge Corporal Charles McMahon, Jr. First Lieutenant Michael J. Shea and Captain William C. Nystul and ask that the fourteen Marines who lost their lives on Koh Tang in Cambodia, on 15 May 1975, also not be forgotten.


Foreword iii Preface v Table of Contents. vii List of Maps x PART I THE UNITED STATES PRESENCE IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC 1 Chapter 1 The War Goes On 2 Paris Peace Accords 2 The NVA Marshals in the South 7 A Division of Marines 16 Chapter 2 The United States Presence in Southeast Asia 22 The Forces in Thailand 22 The Forces Afloat 27 The III Marine Amphibious Force 29 Americans Ashore 36 37 Chapter 3 Contingency Planning 40 The Plan for Cambodia 42 Vietnam 52 Chapter 4 The Fleet Marines are Readied 55 The Air Contingency BLTs 55 The Eagle Pull Command Element 57 The 31st MAU 60 The Other Contingency 65 PART II SOUTH VIETNAM 67

Chapter 5 The North Vietnamese Winter-Spring Offensive, 1974-75: The Mortal Blow

68 The Collapse of the Central Highlands 68 Defeat in Military Region 1 76 A Wasted Division. 79 Chapter 6 The Evacuation of South Vietnam's Northern Provinces 85 The Amphibious Evacuation RVN Support Group Initial Operations in Vietnamese Waters PART III OPERATION EAGLE PULL 99 Chapter 7 The Evacuation of Phnom Penh The Khmer Communists' Last Dry Season Offensive PART IV Marine Security Guard Detachment, Da Nang The Restructured 9th Marine Amphibious Brigade. DAO Planning: The SPG and Project Alamo OPERATION FREQUENT WIND AND A NEW BEGINNING A Link to Freedom: The Exodus and a New Beginning. Preparations: 1st Battalion, 4th Marines and the Task Force Evacuation and Passage: Frequent Wind and the AESF's Final Chapter. A. Command and Staff List, Southeast Asia, 1973-1975. B. Command Staff, BIT 2/4, 29-30 April 1975

C. U.S. Marine Officers Serving in Billets in South Vietnam and USSAG, Thailand, 1973-1975.

D. Company C, Marine Security Guard Battalion, January-April 1975 E. Mayaguez Rescue Force (BLTs 2/9 and 1/4), 12-15 May 1975. G. Chronology of Significant Events, 1973-1975 I. 1st Battalion, 4th Marines Detachments, 3-11 April 1975 K. Helicopter Flow Table for Frequent Wind.

The Battle of Phuoc Long, December 1974-January 1975 Military Region 1, VNMC Division AO, 1 January-15 March 1975 Military Region 1, VNMC Division AO, 15-31 March 1975 USS Okinawa and 31st MAU, 1200-2000, 12 April 1975 USS Okinawa and Task Force 76, 29-30 April 1975

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Greeks rally in Athens over Macedonia name row

By Lefteris Papadimas and Vassilis Triandafyllou ATHENS (Reuters) - Hundreds of thousands of Greeks rallied outside parliament in Athens on Sunday to protest against the use of the term Macedonia in any settlement the government pursues with the ex-Yugoslav Republic to end a decades-old name row. The two countries have agreed to step up negotiations, mediated by the United Nations, this year to settle the dispute, which has frustrated the aspirations of Greece's small northern neighbor to join NATO and the European Union. Thoroughfares in central Athens turned into a sea of people waving blue and white Greek flags in what locals said was the largest gathering in decades, easily outdoing rallies against austerity foisted by lenders on the crisis-hit country. Greece objects to Macedonia's name because it has its own region called Macedonia, and argues that its neighbor's use of the name, along with contentious articles in its constitution, imply territorial claims over Greek land. Protesters hoisted a giant Greek flag over the demonstration with a crane on Sunday. They held banners reading "Hands off Macedonia!" and chanted the national anthem. "I'm here for Macedonia. Macedonia is ours, it's part of Greece. We won't let them take it from us," said 72-year old Persefoni Platsouri clutching a Greek flag. The case evokes strong emotions among Greeks who consider Macedonia, the ancient kingdom ruled by Alexander the Great, to be an integral part of their homeland and heritage. Talks also reopened at a sensitive time for a country which is struggling to emerge from its worst debt crisis in decades and to regain sovereignty over economic policy-making after years of austerity mandated by international lenders. "HISTORICAL LIE" Among Sunday's speakers was world-renowned Greek composer Mikis Theodorakis, who said the eight-year economic crisis had not wiped Greece's history from people's memories. "If we give in, we are leaving the doors wide open for a tragic historical lie to come through and stay forever," the 93-year old leftist, a symbol of resistance against the 1967-1974 military junta, told a cheering crowd. Talks between the two countries have been inconclusive since the Balkan state broke away from Yugoslavia in 1991. Due to Greece's objections, Macedonia was admitted to the United Nations with the provisional name "The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" in 1993, which remains its official title in international organizations. A majority of countries in the world refer to it simply as Macedonia. Greece's leftist-led government has proposed a compound name, with a geographical qualifier, which would be the only name that could be used for the country. But opinion polls in recent weeks have shown a majority of Greeks oppose the use of "Macedonia" in any solution. About 300,000 people turned out at a demonstration on Jan. 21 in Thessaloniki, capital of Greece's Macedonia region. The issue has also strained relations between Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras' Syriza party and his small coalition ally, the right-wing Independent Greeks. The coalition government controls 154 seats in the 300-seat parliament. The Macedonia issue helped bring down Greece's conservative government in 1993 the same party, now in opposition, has criticized Tsipras' administration for its negotiating tactics. Foreign Minister Nikos Kotzias said last week that Greece is preparing proposals which would be the basis of negotiations for a settlement with its neighboring country. "Here are the borders. This is Macedonia . Macedonia is Greek, no one can take this name, no one can use it," said protester Rania Mainou, pointing on a map. (Writing by Renee Maltezou Editing by Catherine Evans)


Origins Edit

In 1911, the Greek Government appointed French specialists to form the Hellenic Aviation Service. Six Greek officers were sent to France for training, while the first four Farman type aircraft were ordered. All six graduated from the Farman school in Étampes near Paris, but only four subsequently served in aviation. The first Greek civilian aviator that was given military rank was Emmanuel Argyropoulos, who flew in a Nieuport IV.G. "Alkyon" aircraft, on February 8, 1912. The first military flight was made on May 13, 1912 by Lieutenant Dimitrios Kamberos. In June, Kamberos flew with the "Daedalus", a Farman Aviation Works aircraft that had been converted into a seaplane, setting a new average speed world record at 110 km/h (68 mph). In September of the same year the Greek Army fielded its first squadron, the "Aviators Company" (Greek: Λόχος Αεροπόρων).

Balkan Wars and aftermath (1912–1930) Edit

On October 5, 1912, Kamberos flew the first combat mission, a reconnaissance flight over Thessaly. This was on the first day of the Balkan wars. On the same day a similar mission was flown by German mercenaries in Ottoman service, over the Thrace front against the Bulgarian Army. The Greek and the Ottoman missions, coincidentally flown on the same day, were the first military aviation missions in the history of conventional war. As a matter of fact, all Balkan countries used military aircraft and foreign mercenaries during the Balkan Wars.

January 24, 1913 saw the first naval co-operation mission in history, which took place over the Dardanelles. Aided by the Royal Hellenic Navy destroyer RHNS Velos, 1st Lieutenant Michael Moutoussis and Ensign Aristeidis Moraitinis flew the Farman hydroplane and drew up a diagram of the positions of the Turkish fleet, against which they dropped four bombs. This was not the first air-to-ground attack in military history, as there was a precedent in the Turkish-Italian war of 1911, but the first recorded attack against ships from the air.

Initially, the Hellenic Army and the Royal Hellenic Navy operated separate Army Aviation and Naval Aviation units. During the Balkan Wars, various French Henry and Maurice Farman aircraft types were used. The Hellenic Naval Air Service was officially founded in 1914 by the then Commander in Chief (CnC) of the Royal Hellenic Navy, British Admiral Mark Kerr. Greek aviation units participated in World War I and the Asia Minor Campaign, equipped by the Allies with a variety of French and British designs.

Foundation, World War II and Civil War (1930–1950) Edit

In 1930 the Aviation Ministry was founded, establishing the Air Force as the third branch of the Hellenic Armed Forces. The Hellenic Army Air Service and Hellenic Naval Air Service were merged into a single service, the Royal Hellenic Air Force. In 1931 the Hellenic Air Force Academy, the Icarus School (Greek: Σχολή Ικάρων), was founded.

In 1939, an order for 24 Marcel Bloch MB.151 fighter aircraft was placed, but only 9 of the aircraft reached Greece, since the outbreak of World War II prevented the French from completing the order. The aircraft entered service in the 24th Pursuit Squadron (MD – Moira Dioxis) of the Air Force.

During the Italian invasion of Greece (1940) in the Second World War, although being severely outnumbered and counting only 79 aircraft against 380 fighters and bombers of the Italian Regia Aeronautica, [8] RHAF managed to successfully resist the assault. On October 30, two days after the start of the war, there was the first air battle. Some Henschel Hs126s of 3/2 Flight of 3 Observation Mira took off to locate Italian Army columns. But they were intercepted and attacked by Fiat CR.42 Falcos of 393 a Squadriglia. A first Henschel was hit and crashed, killing its observer, Pilot Officer Evanghelos Giannaris, the first Greek aviator to die in the war. A second Hs 126 was downed over Mount Smolikas, killing Pilot Officer Lazaros Papamichail and Sergeant Constantine Yemenetzis. [9] On November 2, 1940, a Breguet 19 intercepted the 3 Alpine Division Julia while it was penetrating the Pindos mountain range in an attempt to occupy Metsovo. On the same day, 2nd Lieutenant Marinos Mitralexis having run out of ammunition, aimed the nose of his PZL P.24 right into the tail of an enemy Cant Z1007bis bomber, smashing the rudder and sending the aircraft out of control. [10]

After 65 days of war the RHAF had lost 31 officers, 7 wounded, plus 4 NCOs killed and 5 wounded. Meanwhile, the number of combat aircraft had dropped to 28 fighters and 7 battleworthy bombers. [11] Still by March 1941, the Italian invasion on air and ground had been successfully pushed back, aided by the vital contribution of the RHAF to the Greek victory. During the Greco-Italian War the Hellenic Air Force shot down 68 enemy aircraft (official records) and claimed another 24. The British RAF claimed 150 additional air victories against Italian aircraft. However surprisingly, the Italian Air Force recorded only 65 aircraft lost, during the entire campaign against the Greeks and later the British, with 495 additional aircraft reported as damaged. [12]

In April 1941, the German Wehrmacht invaded Greece in order to assist the Italian assault. During this second wave of foreign invasion, the Luftwaffe eventually succeeded in destroying almost the entire Hellenic Air Force. However, some aircraft managed to escape to the Middle East, [10] including 5 Avro Anson, 1 Dornier Do 22 and 3 Avro 626.

During the German occupation of Greece, the Air Force was rebuilt under the expatriated Greek Air Force Ministry based in Cairo. Three squadrons were built, operating under the command of the British RAF. These squadrons were the 13th Light Bombing Squadron flying Avro Ansons, Bristol Blenheims and Martin Baltimores and the 335 and 336 Fighting Squadrons flying Hawker Hurricane I and IIs and Spitfire V types. The RHAF squadrons in the Middle East flew a variety of missions, including convoy patrols, antisubmarine search, offensive patrols, reconnaissance, attack and interception of enemy aircraft. In Summer 1943, the Greek squadrons participated in the attack against the German Wehrmacht on the island of Crete and then from May to November 1944 in Italy. During those years, 70 Greek pilots were lost. [13]

During World War II Greek pilots who were flying with the RAF achieved many victories. Rhodesian-born Wing Commander John Agorastos Plagis shot down 16 enemy aircraft over Malta and Western Europe. Lieutenant Vasilios Michael Vassiliadis was credited with 11.5 enemy aircraft over Western Europe before he was killed in action on March 15, 1945 over Germany. Steve Pisanos, an immigrant to the US in 1938, joined an Eagle Squadron of American volunteers in the RAF and fought over Western Europe. He later joined the USAAF and acquired US citizenship and continued to fly with the same squadron, now part of the USAF 4th FG. He had achieved 10 victories with the USAAF by 1944.

After Greece's liberation in 1944, RHAF returned to Greece and subsequently played a decisive role in the Greek Civil War, which lasted until 1950. By then, it was re-equipped with Supermarine Spitfire Mk IX, Spitfire Mk XVI fighters and Curtiss SB2C Helldiver bombers.

Post-war developments (1950–1970) Edit

After the end of the Greek Civil War in November 1950, Greece sent 7 Douglas C-47 Dakota transport aircraft of the 13th Transport Aircraft Squadron to South Korea to assist the United Nations. Greek aircraft operated in Korea until May 1955. Greek pilots flew thousands of missions including air evacuations, personnel transport, intelligence gathering, and supply flights. In 1952 Greece joined NATO and the Air Force was rebuilt and organized according to NATO standards. New aircraft, including jets, were introduced.

The first jet fighter flown by the RHAF was the Republic F-84G Thunderjet in 1955. It was also flown by the first Air Force aerobatic team 337 SQ “Hellenic Flame” (Greek: Ελληνική Φλόγα). The RF-84F entered service with the 348 Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron in 1956. Although the F-84G was replaced by the Canadair Sabre 2 in 1954 and 1955 after 100 units were retired from the Royal Canadian Air Force and upgraded in the United Kingdom before entering service with the RHAF, the RF-84F remained in service until 1991. The Lockheed T-33 was also delivered as a trainer in 1955. Some RT-33s were used for reconnaissance missions.

In the late 1960s, the RHAF acquired new jet aircraft. These included the Convair F-102 Delta Dagger (in service 1969–1975), the Lockheed F-104G Starfighter and the Northrop F-5 Freedom Fighter. The F-104 and F-5 stayed in service until the mid- to late 1980s.

In the mid-1970s the Hellenic Air Force was further modernized with deliveries of the Dassault Mirage F1CG fleet, the Vought A-7 Corsair II (including a number of TA-7Hs) and the first batch of McDonnell-Douglas F-4 Phantom IIs.

In 1993, the United States Air Force delivered 62 additional A-7Es and TA-7Cs increasing further the air-to-ground capabilities of the HAF. These aircraft remained in service until 2011. [14]

Greece & Aegean Islands Cruise

You've seen photos of the ancient Acropolis, dating back to the 5th century BC—now’s your chance to see it in person. You've watched the Olympics on TV—now is your chance to visit Olympia, legendary home of the first Olympic Games. You've dreamed of cruising in the Greek Islands—now’s your chance to sail into the deep-blue waters of the Aegean Sea and visit these islands yourself. All of this and more await you on this budget-minded Greece tour and cruise.

Step back in time on your guided visits to many of Greece's historic sites. In addition to the Acropolis, visit the archaeological site of Mycenae, dating back to 1350 to 1200 BC the amazingly well-preserved, 2,300-year-old open-air theater in Epidaurus, which still seats 14,000 spectators and the medieval Byzantine Citadel of Mystra, a castle founded in 1249. You’ll also visit the spectacular mountain landscape of Meteora with its 24 rock-top monasteries set in almost inaccessible sandstone peaks.

Also enjoy a 4-night cruise on the Aegean Sea cruising to some of the world’s most beautiful islands. Visit Mykonos, Greece's most famous cosmopolitan island with its seafront village, sandy beaches, and whitewashed houses. Explore Kusadasi, Turkey, where an included excursion takes you to the fascinating Roman, Greek, and Byzantine excavations of Ephesus. Visit Patmos, where St. John the Divine wrote the Revelation and Rhodes, one of Europe's largest medieval towns with ramparts and palaces built during the Crusades. Discover Heraklion, Crete, nestled picturesquely between two mountain ranges with archaeological treasures and beautiful scenery and Santorini (weather permitting), still an active volcano offering one of the world's most breathtaking panoramas.

Picturesque fishing villages, breathtaking blue waters, and ancient sites offer a sightseeing vacation of a lifetime. Your budget travel to Greece for a spectacular Greek tour and cruise is truly an affordable dream vacation!

Small Group Discovery

Cosmos offers Small-Group Discoveries on select Europe dates. A Small-Group Discovery is limited to an average of just 24 guests per departure. There’s always room to roam with extra space between you and other travelers—while still getting up close and personal to the experiences you’ve been dreaming of. Small-Group Discoveries include all the features of a traditional Cosmos escorted tour, complete with expert Tour Director, Driver, and Local Guides who ensure that your health and safety is our top priority. A Small-Group Discovery trip is the perfectly sized tour—without the crowds.

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An 18th-Century French Artist and Her Pastels

By Emily Beeny

Head of a Young Woman, 1779, Adélaïde Labille-Guiard. Pastel on paper, mounted on canvas, 21 1/2 x 17 1/2 in. The J. Paul Getty Museum, 96.PC.327

Adelaïde Labille-Guiard (1749–1803) was a master of textures—of satin and velvet, flesh and hair—whether captured in oil paint or powdery pastel. A sumptuous surface naturalism and a keen attention to individual likeness set her portraits—most especially her portraits of women—apart from those produced by many contemporaries. She was accepted into the ranks of the French Royal Academy in 1783—an uncommon honor for female artists, bestowed in that year on both Labille-Guiard and her colleague Élisabeth Louise Vigée-Lebrun (1755-1842). That same year, Labille-Guiard exhibited ten small portraits in pastel and a magisterial self-portrait in oils showing her teaching two female students: a vanishingly rare depiction of professional instruction for women in this era.

Like other female artists in 18th-century Europe, she had begun her training as a painter of miniatures (tiny watercolor portraits generally executed on disks of ivory), before progressing to pastels, and finally, to oil paint. The pastel medium, however, remained central to her practice throughout her career. The importance of pastels in 18th-century women’s artmaking was in large part the result of economic factors. Working with pastels required less space and overhead than oils, which generally necessitated a team of studio assistants to grind colors, mix paints, and stretch canvases before the painter even sat down to work. The sticks of dry color and sheets of blue paper that made up a pastellist’s studio, by contrast, could fit into a box. The financial bar for entry was lower.

Over the course of the 18th century, pastel technique—like watercolor, embroidery, or the harpsichord—also came to be seen as a pursuit suitable for female amateurs, an acceptable element of genteel education, and a desirable feminine “accomplishment.” Labille-Guiard, however, was nothing if not a professional. She opened a studio of her own and there trained a whole cohort of female artists.

Watch the video: Keramikos archaeological site and museum in Athens