John Winthrop

John Winthrop

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Prof. Allison discusses John Winthrop's life and accomplishments.

This course explores the history of Boston from the 1600’s to the present day. Learn about the native people who lived on the land we now know as Boston before the Puritans arrived. Discover how the European settlers created a robust system of self government and a democracy so strong that Boston became the birthplace of the Revolutionary War. Trace the city’s role in the American anti-slavery movement and the Civil War. The course will help you understand why Boston remains revolutionary to this day, redefining education, the arts and medicine, through its world-class museums, orchestras, hospitals and schools.
Learn more:

John Winthrop Facts, Contributions, and Biography

The story of Winthrop&rsquos family is both tragic and rewarding. He had four wives, three of them died before him. He married his first wife, Mary Forth when he was 18 years of age.

He and his young wife would go onto have six children, including John Winthrop Jr. who became governor of Connecticut.

10 years after he and Mary exchanged vows she died. Winthrop moved on quickly and married his second wife, Thomasine Clopton in December of 1615. They were married for a year before she tragically died in December of 1616.

Two years later in 1618, Winthrop married again. He married Margaret Tyndal in April of 1618. It would be his wife Margaret that would migrate to New England with him.

However, she passed away in June of 1631. His last marriage took place in 1647 to the widow Martha Coytmore.

She would survive him and give him one son.

General Overviews

Because of his central role in the history of the colony, most studies of early Massachusetts feature Winthrop prominently. Cotton Mather set the tone for positive assessments of the Puritan colonists in his Magnalia Christi Americana (Mather 1972). Most 18th- and 19th-century historians followed his lead in extolling the New England colonists for their moral character and identifying the colonies as the seedbed of American democracy. The late 19th century saw a reversal, as historians such as Charles Francis Adams highlighted the authoritarian aspects of Puritanism, focused on the colonial persecution of dissenters, and depicted the colonists as critical of all earthly pleasures (Adams 1893). This false stereotype of Puritans and their colonies was challenged by Samuel Eliot Morison, writing at the time of the three hundredth anniversary of the settlement of Massachusetts (Morison 1960). Subsequent studies have been balanced in their depictions of early New England. Richard S. Dunn tells the story of New England by looking at three generations of Winthrops (Dunn 1962). A more recent development has been the work of Francis J. Bremer (Bremer 2003, Bremer and Botelho 2005), Theodore Dwight Bozeman (Bozeman 1988), and others in recovering the broader Atlantic context of the story.

Adams, Charles Francis. Massachusetts: Its Historians and Its History An Object Lesson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1893.

Adams, a descendant of early New Englanders, was highly critical of the persecution of dissenters in early New England, arguing that the colonists were as intolerant as the English authorities they had come to America to escape from.

Bozeman, Theodore Dwight. To Live Ancient Lives: The Primitivist Dimension in Puritanism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Bozeman argues that rather than seeking to create a model society without precedent, the early settlers of New England turned to Old Testament models to shape their institutions.

Bremer, Francis J. John Winthrop: America’s Forgotten Founding Father. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

The English background of the settlement of New England and the history of the Massachusetts colony from 1630 to 1649 centered on the life of John Winthrop.

Bremer, Francis J., and Lynn A. Botelho, eds. The World of John Winthrop: Essays on England and New England, 1588–1649. Massachusetts Historical Society Studies in American History and Culture. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 2005.

A collection of nine essays by leading English and American scholars dealing with the political, religious, economic, cultural, and other aspects of England and America, most taking a comparative approach.

Dunn, Richard S. Puritans and Yankees: The Winthrop Dynasty of New England, 1630–1717. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1962.

This is an overview of colonial New England history from the perspective of the Winthrop family and its contributions.

Mather, Cotton. Magnalia Christi Americana or, The Ecclesiastical History of New England, from Its First Planting in the Year 1620 unto the Year of Our Lord 1698. New York: Arno, 1972.

Originally published in 1702. Mather regarded the settlement of New England as part of God’s divine plan and saw parallels between colonial leaders and the Old Testament heroes of Israel. Mather depicts Winthrop as “Nehemiah Americanus” in his biographical chapter on the governor.

Morison, Samuel Eliot. Builders of the Bay Colony. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960.

Originally published in 1930. A collection of biographical chapters meant to illustrate the nature of New England society in a way that undercut the negative stereotypes popular at the time. Extremely well written and generally insightful. The chapter on Winthrop emphasizes his nobility of character.

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.

Learn More

Roger Williams

Learn about Roger Williams' Story


Learn more about Roger Williams and other influential people of his time.

A Model of Christian Charity

Many primary documents relate to multiple themes in American history and government and are curated by different editors for particular collections. In the dropdown menu, we provide links to variant excerpts of the document, with study questions relevant to particular themes.

Related Resources


Many (although not all) of the early colonists in New England were religious dissenters – persons who had separated from established churches in Great Britain – for whom the New World represented a haven from royal persecution. Particularly in the colonies of Plymouth and Massachusetts, shared religious commitments and the experience of persecution led community leaders to frame their colonies as quasi-utopian places for the faithful to prosper. Given the opportunity to create societies according to their own understandings, they did not hesitate to engage in radical social experiments meant to prove that “godliness” was not only a spiritual virtue but had practical implications for everyday life as well. From the beginning, ministers like Robert Cushman and civil magistrates like William Bradford and John Winthrop urged their citizens to recognize that they were drawn together for a purpose far beyond their own liberty, or even security, and to place the welfare of the community as a whole above their own.

Cushman and Winthrop, for example, offered advice to the colonists about how to best prepare themselves mentally and spiritually for the arduous task of a godly commonwealth. Both men urged their audiences to embrace the Christian ideal of “brotherly affection.” In response to the extraordinary demands of colonization, they urged their listeners to willingly be generous and abjure “self-love.” This was taken quite literally at Plymouth, where the London-based investors funding the colony required the colonists to agree that everything would be held in common for the first seven years, and then at the end of that term, all property/profits divided equally between colonists and investors. Although this experiment with communalism failed rather spectacularly and was abandoned after only three years, the ethic of neighborliness continued to be an important touchstone in both colonies throughout the seventeenth century.

New colonists continued to arrive regularly throughout the 1630s and 1640s, and as the population increased, the colonists struggled to balance their desire to remain true to their founders’ idealized notion of community with the realities of life and commerce. In Massachusetts Bay, for example, merchants such as Robert Keayne were expected to moderate their desire for profit with a due consideration of the extreme needs and limited means of their customers. Keayne, who was both a shrewd businessman and a devout member of his church, apparently struggled his whole life to meet this standard at various times, he was admonished by both his congregation and the civil government for unjust business practices (see Admonishment and Reconciliation of Robert Keayne with the Church, 1639 1640). This accusation apparently stung so deeply, Keayne used his last will and testament to present an extensive Apologia for his actions.

John Winthrop, “A Model of Christian Charity”, Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society (Boston, 1838), 3rd series 7:31-48).

GOD ALMIGHTY in his most holy and wise providence, hath so disposed of the condition of’ mankind, as in all times some must be rich, some poor, some high and eminent in power and dignity others mean and in submission.

  1. Reason. First, to hold conformity with the rest of his works, being delighted to show forth the glory of his wisdom in the variety and difference of the creatures, and the glory of his power in ordering all these differences for the preservation and good of the whole and the glory of his greatness, that as it is the glory of princes to have many officers, so this great king will have many stewards, counting himself more honored in dispensing his gifts to man by man, than if he did it by his own immediate hands.
  2. Reason. Secondly, that he might have the more occasion to manifest the work of his Spirit: first upon the wicked in moderating and restraining them: so that the rich and mighty should not eat up the poor, nor the poor and despised rise up against their superiors and shake off their yoke. Secondly, in the regenerate, in exercising his graces in them, as in the great ones, their love, mercy, gentleness, temperance etc., in the poor and inferior sort, their faith, patience, obedience, etc.
  3. Reason. Thirdly, that every man might have need of others, and from hence they might be all knit more nearly together in the bonds of brotherly affection. From hence it appears plainly that no man is made more honorable than another or more wealthy etc., out of any particular and singular respect to himself, but for the glory of his creator and the common good of the creature, man. Therefore, God still reserves the property of these gifts to himself as Ezek. 16:17 – he there calls wealth, his gold and his silver, 1 and Prov. 3:9 – he claims their service as his due, honor the Lord with thy riches,etc. 2 All men being thus (by divine providence) ranked into two sorts, rich and poor under the first are comprehended all such as are able to live comfortably by their own means duly improved and all others are poor according to the former distribution.

. . . There is a time when a Christian must sell all and give to the poor, as they did in the Apostles’ times. There is a time also when Christians (though they give not all yet) must give beyond their ability. . . . Likewise, a community of peril calls for extraordinary liberality, and so doth community in some special service for the church. Lastly, when there is no other means whereby our Christian brother may be relieved in his distress, we must help him beyond our ability rather than tempt God in putting him upon help by miraculous or extraordinary means.

This duty of mercy is exercised in three kinds: giving, lending and forgiving.

Quest[ion]. What rule shall a man observe in giving in respect of the measure?

Ans[wer]. If the time and occasion be ordinary, he is to give out of his abundance. Let him lay aside as God hath blessed him. 3 If the time and occasion be extraordinary, he must be ruled by them: taking this withal, that then a man cannot likely do too much, especially if he may leave himself and his family under probable means of comfortable subsistence.

Object[ion]. A man must lay up for posterity, the fathers lay up for posterity and children, and he is worse than an infidel that provideth not for his own. 4

Ans[wer]. For the first, it is plain that it being spoken by way of comparison, it must be meant of the ordinary and usual course of fathers, and cannot extend to times and occasions extraordinary. For the other place, the Apostle speaks against such as walked inordinately, and it is without question that he is worse than an infidel who through his own sloth and voluptuousness shall neglect to provide for his family. . . .

Quest[ion]. What rule must we observe in lending?

Ans[wer]. Thou must observe whether thy brother hath present or probable or possible means of repaying thee, if there be none of those, thou must give him according to his necessity, rather than lend him as he requires if he hath present means of repaying thee, thou art to look at him not as an act of mercy, but by way of Commerce, wherein thou art to walk by the rule of justice but if his means of repaying thee be only probable or possible, then is he an object of thy mercy, thou must lend him, though there be danger of losing it, Deut. 15:7. If any of thy brethren be poor etc., thou shalt lend him sufficient. . . . 5

Quest[ion]. What rule must we observe and walk by in cause of community of peril?

Ans[wer]. The same as before, but with more enlargement towards others and less respect towards ourselves and our own right. Hence it was that in the primitive Church they sold all, had all things in common, neither did any man say that which he possessed was his own. 6 Likewise in their return out of the captivity, because the work was great for the restoring of the church and the danger of enemies was common to all, Nehemiah directs the Jews to liberality and readiness in remitting their debts to their brethren, and disposing liberally to such as wanted, and stand not upon their own dues which they might have demanded of them. 7 Thus did some of our Forefathers in times of persecution in England, and so did many of the faithful of other churches, whereof we keep an honorable remembrance of them and it is to be observed that both in Scriptures and latter stories of the churches that such as have been most bountiful to the poor saints, especially in those extraordinary times and occasions, God hath left them highly commended to posterity. . . .

. . . The definition which the Scripture gives us of love is this: Love is the bond of perfection. First it is a bond or ligament. Secondly it makes the work perfect. There is no body but consists of parts, and that which knits these parts together, gives the body its perfection, because it makes each part so contiguous to others as thereby they do mutually participate with each other, both in strength and infirmity, in pleasure and pain. To instance in the most perfect of all bodies Christ and his Church make one body the several parts of this body considered apart before they were united, were as disproportionate and as much disordering as so many contrary qualities or elements, but when Christ comes, and by his spirit and love knits all these parts to himself and each to other, it is become the most perfect and best proportioned body in the world, Eph. 4:16: Christ, by whom all the body being knit together by every joint for the furniture thereof, according to the effectual power which is in the measure of every perfection of parts, a glorious body without spot or wrinkle 8 the ligaments hereof being Christ, or his love, for Christ is love, 1 John 4:8. So this definition is right. Love is the bond of perfection. . . .

The next consideration is how this love comes to be wrought. Adam in his first estate was a perfect model of mankind in all their generations, and in him this love was perfected in regard of the habit. But Adam rent himself from his Creator, rent all his posterity also one from another whence it comes that every man is borne with this principle in him: to love and seek himself only, and thus a man continueth till Christ comes and takes possession of the soul and infuseth another principle, love to God and our brother, and this latter having continual supply from Christ, as the head and root by which he is united, gets the predomining in the soul, so by little and little expels the former. 1 John 4:7: love cometh of God and every one that loveth is borne of God, 9 so that this love is the fruit of the new birth, and none can have it but the new creature. . . .

From the former Considerations arise these conclusions. First, this love among Christians is a real thing, not imaginary. Secondly, this love is as absolutely necessary to the being of the body of Christ, as the sinews and other ligaments of a natural body are to the being of that body. Thirdly, this love is a divine, spiritual, nature free, active, strong, courageous, and permanent undervaluing all things beneath its proper object and of all the graces, this makes us nearer to resemble the virtues of our heavenly father. . . .

It rests now to make some application of this discourse, by the present design, which gave the occasion of writing of it. Herein are four things to be propounded first the persons, secondly the work, thirdly the end, fourthly the means.

For the persons. We are a company professing ourselves fellow members of Christ, in which respect only though we were absent from each other many miles, and had our employments as far distant, yet we ought to account ourselves knit together by this bond of love, and, live in the exercise of it, if we would have comfort of our being in Christ. . . .

For the work we have in hand. It is by a mutual consent, through a special overvaluing providence and a more than an ordinary approbation of the churches of Christ, to seek out a place of cohabitation and consortship under a due form of Government both civil and ecclesiastical. In such cases as this, the care of the public must over sway all private respects, by which, not only conscience, but mere civil policy, doth bind us. For it is a true rule that particular estates cannot subsist in the ruin of the public.

The end is to improve our lives to do more service to the Lord the comfort and increase of the body of Christ, whereof we are members that ourselves and posterity may be the better preserved from the common corruptions of this evil world, to serve the Lord and work out our Salvation under the power and purity of his holy ordinances.

For the means whereby this must be effected: they are twofold, a conformity with the work and end we aim at. These we see are extraordinary, therefore we must not content ourselves with usual ordinary means. Whatsoever we did, or ought to have, done, when we lived in England, the same must we do, and more also, where we go. That which the most in their churches maintain as truth in profession only, we must bring into familiar and constant practice as in this duty of love, we must love brotherly without dissimulation, we must love one another with a pure heart fervently. We must bear one another’s burdens. We must not look only on our own things, but also on the things of our brethren. Neither must we think that the Lord will bear with such failings at our hands as he dothe from those among whom we have lived. . . .

Thus stands the cause between God and us. We are entered into covenant with Him for this work. We have taken out a commission. The Lord hath given us leave to draw our own articles. We have professed to enterprise these and those accounts, upon these and those ends. We have hereupon besought Him of favor and blessing. Now if the Lord shall please to hear us, and bring us in peace to the place we desire, then hath he ratified this covenant and sealed our Commission, and will expect a strict performance of the articles contained in it but if we shall neglect the observation of these articles which are the ends we have propounded, and, dissembling with our God, shall fall to embrace this present world and prosecute our carnal intentions, seeking great things for ourselves and our posterity, the Lord will surely break out in wrath against us be revenged of such a [sinful] people and make us know the price of the breaches of such a covenant.

Now the only way to avoid this shipwreck, and to provide for our posterity, is to follow the counsel of Micah, to do justly, to love mercy, to walk humbly with our God. 10 For this end, we must be knit together, in this work, as one man. We must entertain each other in brotherly affection. We must be willing to abridge ourselves of our superfluities, for the supply of other’s necessities. We must uphold a familiar commerce together in all meekness, gentleness, patience and liberality. We must delight in each other make other’s conditions our own rejoice together, mourn together, labor and suffer together, always having before our eyes our commission and community in the work, as members of the same body. So shall we keep the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace. 11 The Lord will be our God, and delight to dwell among us, as his own people, and will command a blessing upon us in all our ways. So that we shall see much more of his wisdom, power, goodness and truth, than formerly we have been acquainted with. We shall find that the God of Israel is among us, when ten of us shall be able to resist a thousand of our enemies when he shall make us a praise and glory that men shall say of succeeding plantations, “the Lord make it like that of New England.” For we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us. So that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken, and so cause him to withdraw his present help from us, we shall be made a story and a by-word through the world. We shall open the mouths of enemies to speak evil of the ways of God, and all professors for God’s sake. We shall shame the faces of many of God’s worthy servants, and cause their prayers to be turned into curses upon us till wee be consumed out of the good land whither we are a going.

I shall shut up this discourse with that exhortation of Moses, that faithful servant of the Lord, in his last farewell to Israel, Deut. 30: Beloved there is now set before us life and good, Death and evil, in that we are commanded this day to love the Lord our God, and to love one another, to walk in his ways and to keep his Commandments and his Ordinance and his laws, and the articles of our Covenant with him, that we may live and be multiplied, and that the Lord our God may blesse us in the land whither we go to possess it. But if our hearts shall turn away, so that we will not obey, but shall be seduced, and worship and serve other Gods, our pleasure and profits, and serve them it is propounded unto us this day, we shall surely perish out of the good land whither we pass over this vast sea to possess it 12

Therefore let us choose life – that we, and our seed may live, by obeying His voice and cleaving to Him, for He is our life and our prosperity. 13

Study Questions

A. What expectations do both Robert Cushman and John Winthrop articulate about the conduct and character of those who will settle in Massachusetts? What reasons do they offer for these expectations? Why did Plymouth’s experiment with communal farming fail – and what was it about farming on private property that made it succeed? How might the different settlers seen in the passenger list have responded to these principles, and why? What tensions are seen in the account of Keayne’s trial, admonition, and reconciliation? Where is the line between covetousness and commerce? What does his Apologia suggest about the difficulties of adhering to utopian ideals in an increasingly diverse community?

B. How do the concerns about greed and the negative societal repercussions of excess wealth seen here relate to the issues raised about labor and markets in the nineteenth century?

C. How might we evaluate these documents in light of the questions about market behavior raised in the Great Depression? What role, if any, do the authors in that chapter see for virtue in the economy? What are the consequences of neglecting to consider virtue in an economic context? How do the visions of a community of shared responsibility for the financial security of all presented in this chapter compare to those presented in the twentieth century?

John Winthrop Jr., here and gone

John Winthrop the younger was the son of Massachusetts Bay Colony governor John Winthrop, and led the settlement of Agawam in 1633 (renamed Ipswich in 1634), accompanied by 11 men. During that first year they erected crude shelters, and the next year brought their families to join them in the wilderness.

The native population of Agawam had been decimated by a plague, and the relationship between the settlers and the natives was mutually beneficial at the beginning. Sagamore Masconomet signed over to Winthrop all that land between Labor in Vain Creek and Chebacco Creek for the sum of twenty pounds, with a promise of protection from their enemies, the Abernaki Indians.

The meticulous list of John Winthrop’s home inventory has been preserved, and suggests that it was a small four room structure. Winthrop was married to his cousin Martha Fones, who died with an infant in the summer of 1634, the first of the settlers to be buried. After her death, Winthrop sailed to England and when he returned, he had married Elizabeth Reade.

In 1636 Winthrop accepted a commission to begin a plantation in Saybrook Connecticut. More than fifty prominent Ipswich citizens set their names to a letter addressed to Winthrop’s father, the governor, appealing that their leader, John Winthrop Jr. be retained. A generous vote of Jan. 13, 1637 granted to Mr. John Winthrop “Castle Hill and all the meadow and marsh lying within the creeke provided he lives in the Towne.”

Notwithstanding, Mr. Winthrop moved in 1639 to Connecticut and sold Samuel Symonds the Castle Hill grant and his land at “Argilla Farm.” When Mr. Symonds bought it there were no buildings and his first care was to erect a house for himself. Symonds became Deputy Governor of the Colony, and in 1660 conveyed the land to his son-in-law Daniel Epes. In 1657 John Winthrop the younger was elected Governor of Connecticut Colony. He died in 1676.

The small settlement at Ipswich felt betrayed by Winthrop Jr., but selected as their new leader an able and gifted young leader named Daniel Denison, who became Major General of the colonial forces and represented Ipswich in the general court. He was remembered with high esteem by the people of Ipswich well into the 19th Century.

The Journal of John Winthrop, 1630-1649

&ldquo Until the Revolution with its stellar collection of &lsquoFounding Fathers&rsquo [John] Winthrop was the only public figure who left his mark on the way his society developed in his own time and for long after. He preserved many letters and papers to document his achievement&mdashhe was not bashful about it&mdashand the most important by far was his journal&hellip The new edition [of the journal] will stand as a model of editorial scholarship&hellip[and] is worth reading simply for the sense it conveys of what it took just to stay alive in seventeenth-century Massachusetts&hellip [Winthrop and the Massachusetts Bay colonists] carried out a revolution, rendered bloodless only be the three thousand miles of ocean that separated them from the government they would otherwise have had to overthrow in order to do what they did. In Massachusetts they created what amounted to a republic, substituting annually elected rulers for an hereditary monarchy and independent self-starting churches for the whole hierarchical structure of the Church of England&hellip John Winthrop surely was the wisest, if not the best, public man in early Massachusetts. He guided a whole society in a truly revolutionary reform&hellip With the exception of Jefferson, the men whom Americans recognize as great seam to have pursued and accomplished radical ends by conservative means. Winthrop was the first. &rdquo &mdashEdmund S. Morgan, The New York Review of Books

&ldquo [W]e should greet the release of a major early American text with enthusiasm. Richard S. Dunn and Laetitia Yeandle have published a splendid new edition of John Winthrop&rsquos &lsquoJournal,&rsquo an account of the founding of New England written between 1630 and 1649. Such works are expressions of a shared national heritage&hellip This edition, from Harvard University Press, is as definitive as projects of this sort are ever likely to be. &rdquo &mdashTimothy H. Breen, The New York Times Book Review

&ldquo Of all the literature produced in the first century of New England, no work has had a more lasting influence than the journal of John Winthrop&hellip Richard Dunn and Laetitia Yeandle have done a superb job of deciphering Winthrop&rsquos almost indecipherable script, and taken in their entirety, their copious annotations tell a fascinating history of the first two decades of colonial life in Massachusetts. &rdquo &mdashRoger Lundin, Books & Culture

&ldquo The single most valuable document of the settlement years, an inner account of the first Puritan generation by its great leader, and a vivid testimony of faith, struggle, and achievement, John Winthrop&rsquos journal is now published in a new, scholarly edition, with the text based on a fresh transcription from the surviving manuscripts. It is a splendid edition, the product of many years of collaboration between an expert paleographer and one of the nation&rsquos leading historians. &rdquo &mdashBernard Bailyn

Recent News

  • Amid debates over anti-racist curricula in K&ndash12 schools, Fugitive Pedagogy author Jarvis Givens highlighted, at the Atlantic, the Black teachers who since the nineteenth century have been deeply engaged in the work of challenging racial domination in American schools.
  • In the Washington Post, Eswar Prasad, author of the forthcoming The Future of Money: How the Digital Revolution Is Transforming Currencies and Finance, exploded five popular myths about cryptocurrency.
  • Stylist published an excerpt from Beronda L. Montgomery&rsquos Lessons from Plants on how the common counsel &ldquobloom where you&rsquore planted&rdquo ignores how plants, in their attempts to flourish, actively participate in and transform their environments. author Vincent Brown spoke with the Boston Globe about what an eighteenth-century rebellion can teach the twenty-first century about dismantling racism.

Black lives matter. Black voices matter. A statement from HUP »

From Our Blog

To celebrate Pride Month, we are highlighting excerpts from books that explore the lives and experiences of the LGBT+ community. Nathaniel Frank&rsquos Awakening: How Gays and Lesbians Brought Marriage Equality to America tells the dramatic story of the struggle for same-sex couples to legally marry, something that is now taken for granted. Below, he describes the beginnings of the gay rights movement. For homophiles of the 1950s, identifying as gay was almost always a risky and radical act&hellip

I have a 5th Gr. Grandfather that is stated as being half negro half Indian in the history of Conway, Massachutsetts. His name is Caleb Sharp, born 1729 died 1799. I have not been able to find anything on where he came from or who his parents may have been. Any suggestions as to how I may further my research would be much appreciated. I am passionate about finding out. I thought I was the only person of color in my family. Through I have come this far and found redemption in Caleb. I have heard repeatedly that it is really difficult to trace Native American Negroes. A point in the right direction would be amazing. Thank you.

A very sad day to be sure

Whenever slavery is mentioned, I am always so proud of Vermont for outlawing it in their Constitution, and for Uncle Henry who fought at Gettysburg for the Union, and in another battle, was injured, captured, and died in a Richmond prison.

Ближайшие родственники

About Governor John Winthrop, Sr.

Page 237 of the actualy book Lives of the governors of New Plymouth, and Massachusetts Bay .. -

Supplement to the history and genealogy of the Dudley family . by Dudley, Dean, 1823-1906

John Winthrop's City upon a Hill, 1630

Now the onely way to avoyde this shipwracke and to provide for our posterity is to followe the Counsell of Micah, to doe Justly, to love mercy, to walke humbly with our God, for this end, wee must be knitt together in this worke as one man, wee must entertaine each other in brotherly Affeccion, wee must be willing to abridge our selves of our superfluities, for the supply of others necessities, wee must uphold a familiar Commerce together in all meekenes, gentlenes, patience and liberallity, wee must delight in eache other, make others Condicions our owne rejoyce together, mourne together, labour, and suffer together, allwayes haveing before our eyes our Commission and Community in the worke, our Community as members of the same body, soe shall wee keepe the unitie of the spirit in the bond of peace, the Lord will be our God and delight to dwell among us, as his owne people and will commaund a blessing upon us in all our wayes, soe that wee shall see much more of his wisdome power goodnes and truthe then formerly wee have beene acquainted with, wee shall finde that the God of Israell is among us, when tenn of us shall be able to resist a thousand of our enemies, when hee shall make us a prayse and glory, that men shall say of succeeding plantacions: the lord make it like that of New England: for wee must Consider that wee shall be as a Citty upon a Hill, the eies of all people are uppon us soe that if wee shall deale falsely with our god in this worke wee have undertaken and soe cause him to withdrawe his present help from us, wee shall be made a story and a byword through the world, wee shall open the mouthes of enemies to speake evill of the wayes of god and all professours for Gods sake wee shall shame the faces of many of gods worthy servants, and cause theire prayers to be turned into Cursses upon us till wee be consumed out of the good land whether wee are going: And to shutt upp this discourse with that exhortacion of Moses that faithfull servant of the Lord in his last farewell to Israell Deut. 30. Beloved there is now sett before us life, and good, deathe and evill in that wee are Commaunded this day to love the Lord our God, and to love one another to walke in his wayes and to keepe his Commaundements and his Ordinance, and his lawes, and the Articles of our Covenant with him that wee may live and be multiplyed, and that the Lord our God may blesse us in the land whether wee goe to possesse it: But if our heartes shall turne away soe that wee will not obey, but shall be seduced and worshipp other Gods our pleasures, and proffitts, and serve them, it is propounded unto us this day, wee shall surely perishe out of the good Land whether wee passe over this vast Sea to possesse it

Therefore lett us choose life,

voyce, and cleaveing to him,

Biography:- John Winthrop: America's forgotten founding father by Francis J Bremer

John Winthrop, the first governor of Massachusetts, was born in 1587 at Edwardstone in Suffolk, England. He was the only son of Adam Winthrop. The elder Winthrop had a small estate in the English countryside, Groton Manor. Winthrop was privately tutored, and at the age of fourteen, attended the prestigious Trinity College in Cambridge.

John was married to Mary Worth at the age of seventeen, and was a father at eighteen. John and Mary went on to have six children within ten years, until Mary's sudden death. John remarried within six months, only to have his new wife die on their first wedding anniversary. A year later, John married again, to his third wife, Margaret. Historical accounts tell us that Margaret was of great Christian faith, very beautiful and gracious, and very loved by her husband.

In 1623, he was appointed to the lucrative position of attorney in the court of wards and liveries. Whether he gave this position up, or lost it due to his strong Puritan beliefs, is an argued point today.

Winthrop had strong Puritan ties, and was a member of The Massachusetts Bay Company. In 1630, his Puritan beliefs led him to leave his prosperous law practice, sell, all of his possessions, and take his family to New England.

Winthrop's wife, Margaret, was expecting a baby, so he decided it was best to leave her and some of his children at home for that year. About three months after departure, Winthrop's ship arrived at Salem, and he founded the settlement of Shawmut Peninsula community that later became known as Boston. Later, Margaret arrived in New England. Winthrop learned that two of his children had died, one of them being the baby daughter he'd never seen.

Winthrop had been elected governor in 1629 before he and the Massachusetts Bay Company had ever set sail from Yarmouth, England. He began to serve as governor when he arrived in 1630 and eventually would serve twelve terms as governor, from 1630 until 1645.

The Puritan leader and governor of Massachusetts John Winthrop was born in Edwardston, Suffolk, on the 12th of January (old style) 1588, the son of Adam Winthrop of Groton Manor, and Anne (Browne) Winthrop. In December 1602 he matriculated at Trinity College, Cambridge, but he did not graduate. The years after his brief course at the university were devoted to the practice of law, in which he achieved considerable success, being appointed, about 1623, an attorney in the Court of Wards and Liveries, and also being engaged in the drafting of parliamentary bills. Though his residence was at Groton Manor, much of his time was spent in London. Meanwhile he passed through the deep spiritual experiences characteristic of Puritanism, and made wide acquaintance among the leaders of the Puritan party. On the 26th of August 1629 he joined in the "Cambridge Agreement", by which he, and his associates, pledged themselves to remove to New England, provided the government and patent of the Massachusetts colony should be removed thither. On the 20th of October following he was chosen governor of the "Governor and Company of the Massachusetts Bay in New England", and sailed in the "Arbella" in March 1630, reaching Salem Massachusetts on the 12th of June (old style), accompanied by a large party of Puritan immigrants. After a brief sojourn in Charlestown, Winthrop and many of his immediate associates settled in Boston in the autumn of 1630. He shared in the formation of a church at Charlestown (afterwards the First Church in Boston) on the 30th of July 1630, of which he was thenceforth a member. At Boston he erected a large house, and there he lived till his death on the 26th of March (old style.)

Winthrop's history in New England was very largely that of the Massachusetts colony, of which he was twelve times chosen Governor by annual election, serving in 1629-34, 1637-40, in 1642-44, and in 1646-49, and dying in office. To the service of the colony he gave not merely unwearied devotion but in its interests consumed strength and fortune. His own temper of mind was conservative and somewhat aristocratic, but he guided political development, often under circumstances of great difficulty, with singular fairness and conspicuous magnanimity. In 1634-5 he was a leader in putting the colony in a state of defense against possible coercion by the English government. He opposed the majority of his fellow-townsmen in the so-called "Antinomian controversy" of 1636-7, taking a strongly conservative attitude towards the questions in dispute. He was the first president of the Commissioners of the United Colonies of New England, organized in 1643. He defended Massachusetts against threatened parliamentary interference once more in 1645-6. That the colony successfully weathered its early perils was due more to Winthrop's skill and wisdom than to the services of any other of its citizens.

Winthrop was four times married. His first wife, to whom he was united on the 16th of April 1605, was Mary Forth, daughter of John Forth, of Great Stambridge, Essex. She bore him six children, of whom the eldest was John Winthrop, Jr. She was buried in Groton on the 26th of June 1615. On the 6th of December 1615 he married Thomasine Clopton, daughter of William Clopton of Castleins, near Groton. She died in childbirth about a year later. He married, on the 29th of April 1618, Margaret Tyndal, daughter of Sir John Tyodal, of Great Maplested, Essex. She followed him to New England in 1631, bore him eight children, and died on the 14th of June 1647. Late in 1647 or early in 1648 he married Mrs. Martha Coytmore, widow of Thomas Coytmore, who survived him, and by whom he had one son.

Winthrop's Journal, an invaluable record of early Massachusetts history, was printed in part in Hartford in 1790 the whole in Boston, edited by James Savage, as The History of New England from 1630 to 1649, in 1825-6, and again in 1853 and in New York, edited by James K. Hosraer, in 1908.

A sketch of the life of John Winthrop, the younger: founder of Ipswich . By Thomas Franklin Waters, Robert Charles Winthrop

John Winthrop (12 January 1587/8– 26 March 1649 obtained a royal charter, along with other wealthy Puritans, from King Charles for the Massachusetts Bay Company and led a group of English Puritans to the New World in 1630.[1] He was elected the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony the year before. Between 1639 and 1648, he was voted out of the governorship and then re-elected a total of 12 times. Although Winthrop was a respected political figure, he was criticized for his obstinacy regarding the formation of a general assembly in 1634, and he clashed repeatedly with other Puritan leaders like Thomas Dudley, Rev. Peter Hobart and others.

Winthrop married his first wife, Mary Forth, on 16 April 1605 at Great Stambridge, Essex, England. Mary bore him six children the oldest son of that marriage was John Winthrop, the Younger, a future governor/magistrate of Connecticut. Mary died in June 1615. Winthrop (elder) married his second wife, Thomasine Clopton, on 6 December 1615 at Groton, Suffolk, England. Thomasine died on 8 December 1616. On 29 April 1618 at Great Maplestead, Essex, England, Winthrop married his third wife, Margaret Tyndal. In the Spring of 1630, Winthrop (elder) led a fleet of eleven vessels and 700 passengers to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the New World, sailing aboard the Arbella and accompanied by his two young sons, Stephen (12) and Samuel (4). [2]. Winthrop's wife, Margaret, sailed on the second voyage of the Lyon in 1631[3], leaving their small manor behind. Their baby daughter, Anne, died on the Lyon voyage[4]. Two more children were born to them in New England. Margaret died on 14 June 1647 in Boston, Massachusetts. Winthrop (elder) then married his fourth wife, Martha Rainsborough, widow of Thomas Coytmore and sister of the famous Levellers Thomas and William Rainborowe, sometime after 20 December 1647 and before the birth of their only child in 1648, he died of natural causes.

Though rarely published and relatively unappreciated for his literary contribution during his time, Winthrop spent his life continually producing written accounts of historical events and religious manifestations. Literary scholars and historians often turn to two works in particular for analytical inspection. Winthrop’s 1630 A Modell of Christian Charity and The Journal of John Winthrop are considered to be his most profound contributions to the literary world.

John Winthrop wrote and delivered the sermon that would be called A Modell of Christian Charity en route to America with a group of puritans in the year 1630. It described the ideas and plans to keep the puritan society strong in faith as well as the struggles that they would have to overcome in the New World.

At the start of his sermon he points out three objectives for a healthy puritan life. The first stated that there is a need for differences to arise within the people of a community for it to survive. Secondly, he made was that everyday activities should bring about spiritual resonance within the community, keeping the faith strong between the puritans and to keep the structure of the lives they have built for each other. The final point that Winthrop made was that each member of the puritan community shouldn’t hold themselves higher than others for the reason that equality breed’s kindness within the community. It shows that everyone is part of the larger community of Christ and shouldn’t take too much pride in their own personal identities.

As most of the puritans came from wealthy and business backgrounds Winthrop wasn’t partial to wealthy patrons of the church. In fact, he didn’t see them as inferior but as a crucial part to the puritan society. Later in his sermon he stated that wealth and love share a correlation. He argues that a certain amount of wealth is needed in order for one to love his or her neighbor as well as the community. Additionally, there is an obvious theme of love that surrounds A Modell of Christian Charity. Winthrop shows this with his talk of sacrifices for the greater good even if it isn’t beneficial to one’s self. Love is also shown with the work one does in the community, with efforts to keep the puritan society alive and working as a perfect model of charity between Christians in a New World.

From 1630 to 1649 John Winthrop, was the first governor of Massachusetts. During this time, he kept an ongoing journal of his life and experiences in colonial era New England. Written in three volumes or, notebooks, his account remains the "prime source for the history of the Bay Colony from 1630 to 1649" (Dunn 186). This journal is the first major work by Winthrop.

The first two volumes of Winthrop's journal were published in 1790, however, the third volume was lost and not recovered until 1816. In 1825 all three volumes were published together for the first time under the name The History of New England from 1630-1649. By John Winthrop, Esq. First Governor of the Colony of the Massachusetts Bay. From his Original Manuscripts. (Dunn 187)

According to Richard Dunn, Winthrop began by keeping a daily journal in 1630, then recorded entries less frequently and regularly and wrote them up at a greater length, so that by the 1640's he had converted his work into a form of history" (Dunn 186). What started as a simple journal would later turn into a first-hand account of early colonial life. Upon his arrival in New England in 1630, Winthrop writes primarily of his private accounts: i.e. his journey from England, the arrival of his wife and children to the colony in 1631, and the birth of his son in 1632 (Dunn 197). The majority of his early journal entries were not intended to be literary, but merely observations of early New England life.

Gradually, the focus of his writings shifts from his personal observations to broader spiritual ideologies. Evidence of this can be found in the second half of his first notebook, mainly between the years of 1634 and 1637 when Winthrop was no longer in office. It is his later writings for which he is remembered.

In addition to his more famous works, Winthrop produced a plethora of writings, both published and unpublished. While living in England, Winthrop articulated his belief “in the validity of experience in his work 𠇎xperiencia” (Bremer). Later in his life, Winthrop wrote 𠇊 Short Story of the rise, reign, and ruine of the Antinomians, Familists and Libertines, that Infected the Churches of New England,” accounting for the Antinomian controversy surrounding Anne Hutchinson in the colony. The Short Story which was first published in London: 1644 (Schweninger). Both works further illustrate puritan religious philosophy with regards to political and social events during the seventeenth century.

The legacy of Winthrop’s literature is evident in American compositions following his death. “William Bradford's Of Plymouth Plantation (unpublished until 1856), Edward Johnson 's Wonder-Working Providence of Sions Saviour in New England (1654), Cotton Mather 's Magnalia Christi Americana (1702), and Winthrop's Journal were efforts both to discern the divine pattern in events and to justify the role New Englanders believed themselves called to play” (Bremer).

John Winthrop (disambiguation)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

John Winthrop was the name of several prominent figures in colonial New England, among them:

  • John Winthrop (1587/8-1649), founding governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • his son, John Winthrop, the Younger (1606-1676), colonial governor of Connecticut
  • his great-great-grandson John Winthrop (1714-1779), early American Astronomer and professor at Harvard College

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

John Winthrop (12 January 1587/8 – 26 March 1649) led a group of English Puritans to the New World, joined the Massachusetts Bay Company in 1629 and was elected their governor in October 1629. Between 1639 and 1648 he was voted out of governorship and re-elected a total of 12 times. Although Winthrop was a respected political figure, he was criticized for his obstinacy regarding the formation of a general assembly in 1634.

Winthrop was born in Edwardstone, Suffolk, England, the son of Adam Winthrop (1548�) and his wife, Anne Browne. Winthrop briefly attended Trinity College, Cambridge, then studied law at Gray's Inn, and in the 1620s became a lawyer at the Court of Wards in London. Other Puritans who believed likewise obtained a royal charter for the Massachusetts Bay Company. Charles I of England was apparently unaware that the colony was to be anything other than a commercial venture to America. However, on March 4, 1629, Winthrop signed the Cambridge Agreement with his wealthier Puritan friends, essentially pledging that they would embark on the next voyage and found a new Puritan colony in New England. The colony's land was taken from Native Americans with Winthrop's excuse that the natives hadn't "subdued" the land and thus had no "civil right" to it.[1]

Winthrop pledged 򣐀 to the cause and set sail on the ship the Arbella[2]—named after the wife of Isaac Johnson, daughter of Thomas Clinton, 3rd Earl of Lincoln. Winthrop befriended the younger Johnson (29 years old at his death) in earlier days in England, spending many days at Isaac's family home. The first Englishman in the Boston area, Blackstone, was a childhood and best friend of Isaac they attended seminary together. Winthrop on Isaac Johnson's death put in probate a sum of over ꍵ,000. Isaac's brother Capt. James Johnson, on his arrival in 1635 was denied his title and right to Isaac's property. With the help of Dudley and others Winthrop kept this wealth in probate, and took fees, for over 30 years. Many documents were destroyed in a very mysterious manner.[citation needed] The documents were part of the "doomsday record" kept by the founders of Boston. Winthrop and others accused Johnson's wife of adultery and placed her on gallows with the rope on neck, only to let her go. Capt. James Johnson's only crime was to allow his wife to have Bible studies in his home with Anne Hutchinson, "a good woman of the Christian faith" who along with the Lady Arbella came from Lincolnshire, England.[citation needed]

Claims to inheritance were presented to the royal court in London by the father Abraham Johnson, a Sheriff of the Queen (Rutland, south of Nottingham). Isaac Johnson was buried with his wife the Lady Arbella of Lincolnshire on his land, now called King's Chapel, on Tremont Street, Boston. A reference is made to Isaac Johnson in the first chapter of the book The Scarlet Letter.

Winthrop endangered his servants for the purpose of running his enterprises and docks "they had not clean water and many died before Winthrop was urged to move to Boston".[citation needed]

Winthrop saw to the hanging of Mary Latham and James Britton in 1644, both found in adultery, but he also admitted to an encounter with an Indian woman at an abandoned settlement not far from his home.[citation needed] Many men searched for him all night only for him to be found not far from home with a very strange story to excuse himself with.[citation needed]

John Winthrop had been elected governor of the colony prior to departure in 1629, and he was re-elected many times. As governor he was one of the least radical of the Puritans, trying to keep the number of executions for heresy to a minimum and working to prevent the implementation of more conservative practices such as veiling women, which many Puritans supported.[citation needed]

Like his Puritan brethren, Winthrop strove to establish a Christian community that held uniform doctrinal beliefs. It was for this reason that in 1638 he presided over the heresy trial and banishing of Anne Hutchinson from the colony. During this trial Winthrop referred to Hutchinson as an "American Jezebel."[3] Winthrop also subscribed to the belief that the native peoples who lived in the hinterlands around the colony had been struck down by God, who sent disease among them because of their non-Christian beliefs: "But for the natives in these parts, God hath so pursued them, as for 300 miles (480 km) space the greatest part of them are swept away by smallpox which still continues among them. So as God hath thereby cleared our title to this place, those who remain in these parts, being in all not 50, have put themselves under our protection."[4]

John Winthrop was voted out of government in 1634, but re-elected in 1646. He disagreed with Roger Williams and was forced to banish the colony.

Winthrop married his first wife, Mary Forth, on 16 April 1605 at Great Stambridge, Essex, England. She bore him six children and died in June 1615. He married his second wife, Thomasine Clopton, on 6 December 1615 at Groton, Suffolk, England. She died on 8 December 1616. On 29 April 1618 at Great Maplestead, Essex, England Winthrop married his third wife, Margaret Tyndal, daughter of Sir John Tyndal and his wife Anna Egerton. Margaret Tyndall gave birth to six children in England before the family emigrated to New England (The Governor, three of his sons, and eight servants in 1630 on the Arbella, and his wife on the second voyage of the Lyon in 1631, leaving their small manor behind). One of their daughters died on the Lyon voyage. Two children were born to them in New England. Margaret died on 14 June 1647 in Boston, Massachusetts. Winthrop then married his fourth wife, Martha Rainsborough, widow of Thomas Coytmore and sister of the famous Levellers Thomas and William Rainborowe, sometime after 20 December 1647 and before the birth of their only child in 1648, he died of natural causes. His son, John Winthrop, the Younger, whose mother was Mary Forth, later became Governor of Connecticut.

Winthrop is most famous for his "City upon a Hill" sermon (as it is known popularly, its real title being A Model of Christian Charity), in which he declared that the Puritan colonists emigrating to the New World were part of a special pact with God to create a holy community. This speech is often seen as a forerunner to the concept of American exceptionalism. The speech is also well known for arguing that the wealthy had a holy duty to look after the poor. Recent history has shown, however, that the speech was not given much attention at the time of its delivery. Rather than coining these concepts, Winthrop was merely repeating what were widely held Puritan beliefs in his day. The work was not actually published until the nineteenth century, although it was known and circulated in manuscript before that time. Winthrop did publish The Humble Request of His Majesties Loyal Subjects (London, 1630), which defended the emigrants’ physical separation from England and reaffirmed their loyalty to the Crown and Church of England. This work was republished by Joshua Scottow in the 1696 compilation MASSACHUSETTS: or The first Planters of New-England, The End and Manner of their coming thither, and Abode there: In several EPISTLES.

Modern American politicians, like Ronald Reagan, continue to cite Winthrop as a source of inspiration. However, those who praise Winthrop fail to note his strident anti-democratic political tendencies. Winthrop stated, for example, "If we should change from a mixed aristocracy to mere democracy, first we should have no warrant in scripture for it: for there was no such government in Israel . A democracy is, amongst civil nations, accounted the meanest and worst of all forms of government. [To allow it would be] a manifest breach of the 5th Commandment."[5]

Winthrop was not governor at the outset of the Pequot war and bore only an indirect responsibility for its outcome. The decision to sell the survivors as slaves in the Bahamas was a societal response and not a personal choice.[citation needed]

The Town of Winthrop, Massachusetts, is named after him, as is Winthrop House at Harvard University, though the house is also named for the John Winthrop who briefly served as President of Harvard.

Winthrop is also briefly immortalized in Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter in the chapter entitled "The Minister's Vigil."[6]

John Winthrop's descendants number thousands today, including current U.S. Senator from Massachusetts John Kerry and President George W. Bush.[citation needed]

^ Howard Zinn A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper & Row Publishing.

^ Francis J. Bremer, John Winthrop: America's Forgotten Founding Father (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 299.

^ R.C. Winthrop, Life and Letters of John Winthrop (Boston, 1869), vol. ii, p. 430.

^ Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Portable Hawthorne. Ed. William C. Spengemann. New York: Penguin, 2005.

Bremer, Francis J. John Winthrop: America's Forgotten Founding Father (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 299

Reich, Jerome R. Colonial America. 5th ed. Ed. Charlyce J. Owen and Edie Riker. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2001.

Winthrop, R.C. Life and Letters of John Winthrop (Boston, 1869), vol. ii, p. 430.

John WINTHROP [Parents] was born on 12 Jan 1587 in Groton Manor, Edwardstone, Sussex, England. He died on 26 Mar 1649 in Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts. He was buried on 3 Apr 1649 in Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts. He married Mary FORTH on 16 Mar 1605 in Great Stambridge, Essex, England.

Mary FORTH [Parents] was born on 1 Jan 1583 in Great Stambridge, Essex, England. She died on 26 Jun 1615 in Groton, Suffolk, England. She was buried on 26 Jun 1615 in Groton, Suffolk, England. She married John WINTHROP on 16 Mar 1605 in Great Stambridge, Essex, England.

They had the following children:

Governor John Winthrop , England and The Colonies

Winthrop is the family name of three American colonial leaders, father, son and grandson. John was one of nine children and the only boy. The Winthrop family name in various spellings may be traced back more than seven centuries. It was during the reign of Queen Elizabeth that John Winthrop was born on Jan 12, 1588 * (this text is starred because it says. the dates given are in the Old Style of dating. for the New Style add 10 days. The above date of John Winthrop is the generally accepted one.)

His father, Adam Winthrop, was squire of Groton Manor in Suffolk, England as had been his father before him. This estate was to descend to John long before his decision to found a new home in America. Little is known of John's boyhood except that he grew up amid the quiet beauty of Suffolk. His writings testify that he was well educated although there are no records of any schooling except the final stage when he entered Trinity College Cambridge at age fourteen, and remained there less than two years.

He wrote at age fourteen, "About fourteen years of age, being in Cambridge, I fell into a lingering fever, which took away the comfort of my life. For being there neglected and dispised, I went up and down, mourning with myself, and being deprived of my youthful joys, I betook myself to God, whom I did believe to be very good and merciful and would welcome any that would come to Him, especially such a young soul, and so well qualified as I took myself to be so as I took pleasure in drawing near to Him." He was admitted at Gray,'s Inn (1613) and practiced law in London, being admitted to the inner Temple in 1628.

EXCERPT FROM "THE WINTHROP PAPERS": John Winthrop was his parents only son. John grew up on his fathers estate, amid gently rolling hills, fields of wheat and rye, and shallow ponds. In his childhood he was educated by a private tutor, and at the age of 14 his father enrolled him in Trinity College in Cambridge. He studied there for 2 years and then returned to Groton to begin the practical training in running the estate. His father introduced him to Mary Forth (old English spelling Forthe), the daughter of a distinguished Essex nobleman. 3 weeks later at the age of 17, they were married. John and his wife Mary worked hard and had six children in ten years, then Mary suddenly died. After six months he remarried, but on the first anniversary of the wedding his second wife died. One year later he married his third wife Margaret. By all accounts she was one of the most appealing women in all of American History. She was beautiful and gracious. She was also a woman of faith. John Winthrop treasured her as his greatest possession. When he traveled away from home, he never failed to send her love letters.

John purchased Groton Manor, Suffolk, England from his Uncle John Winthrop. His Uncle has inherited the Manor from his father Adam Winthrop the first. Gov. John was assisted by his father who handled much of the detail and subsequently assisted his son in the management of the estate. In 1616 his father and he were included on a patent roll listing of the Suffolk Commission of the Peace. John Winthrop, came with his fleet with a charter for the Massachussets Bay Colony. The King when signing the Charter failed to notice that the Directors of the Company were not required to meet in London as other charters required. Thus the Massachussets Bay Colony were fairly independent and practiced the Puritan philosophy without interference, which is a big reason they wanted a fresh start in the New World. The Winthrop Fleet arrived at Salem on 6/12/1630 with Governor John Winthrop aboard the "Arabella". The first years in the New World had to be exceedingly difficult and many were sick with scurvy, pneumonia after the trip by sea, having to exist on wild berries, mussels and indian corn. They left Salem and went to Charlestown, however the water supply there was poor. It was obvious, as the ships straggled in that so many people could not live on the barren peninsula. Sir Richard Saltonstall and the minister George Phillips, had gone up the Charles River and found a new location which Sir Richard called Watertown. Each day since arrival at Charlestown the ships had been coming, after touching at Salem for directions. The Mayflower 2nd, The Whale, The Hopewell, The Trial, The Success, The William and Francis, and at each landing Winthrop had questioned the passengers about his son Henry. Reluctantly he was finally informed that Henry had drowned when he went swimming in a pond in Salem.

During these years in England, John Winthrop lived a quiet meditative life. A journal kept by him at this time and called "Experiencia" is a revelation of his devout piety and earnest faith. Underneath a stern and rather rigid exterior, Winthrop possessed a delicate sensibility abounding in love and tenderness. In a letter to his wife from the ship which was to bear him away to the wilderness across the sea, he wrote, "An now my sweet soul, I must again take my last farewell of Thee in Old England. It goeth very near to my heart to leave Thee."

The election of John Winthrop as Governor came on Oct. 20, 1629. He was now 42 years old. A man of deliberate judgement and keen insight, he realized from the first the great responsibility that was his. Henceforth the welfare of the Bay Colony was the one motive of his life. Five busy months of preparation before departure lay ahead. There was infinite thought to be given to the essential needs of founding new homes and industries in a strange wilderness. Only 3 times did he travel up from London to see his family in Groton. It was decided that 3 of his sons, Henry, Stephen and Adam would accompany him to America. His wife and oldest son John were to come later with the other children.

From "The Lion and the Hare", John had planned to take his family on the Arbella, but his son missed the boat, and followed in the Talbot. Mrs. Winthrop could not go as she was expecting. Only two sons accompanied him, Stephen age 11 and Adam, age 10. They slept with their father under a rug, as there were no sheets. John Winthrop sailed aboard the ship Arabella, and on June 12, 1630 the Arabella entered Salem Harbor. The journey took 83 days from the time it left Southampton, England. Sailed from Southampton, 1630, aboard the Arbella. Chosen as Governor of the Mass. Bay Co. 1629 and signed the Cambridge Agreement, allowing the transfer of the charter and Co. to New England.

There were about 700 passengers aboard, 200 cattle (70 died in a storm), many sheep, swine, goats, but few horses. After a delay by head winds, the Arbella departed from Cowes, Isle of Wight, April 8, 1630 and landed at Cape Anne, MA on June 12th of the same year. All of the shipps arrived safely during the following two weeks. The immigrants gathered a "store of fine strawberries" upon landing. A house was waiting for Gov. Winthrop at Charles town, but he had it moved to a place he named Boston.

From Winthrop's journal which he diligently kept until the day he died, he wrote just an Inkling of what that day was like. "We had now fair sunshine weather and so pleasant a sweet air as did much refresh us and there came a smell off the shore like the smell of a garden." On June 17th Winthrop wrote in his journal, "We went to Massachusetts to find a place for our sitting down. We went up the Mystic River about six miles." Because of the scarcity of food it seemed wiser to break up into small parties, and settlements were made at Lynn, Medford, Charlestown, Watertown, Roxbury, Dorchester and Cambridge (Newtown), and soon little groups of grass-thatched log huts, tents and rude shelters foretold the beginning of colonial villages which were to grow into towns and cities. Before Christmas, all the of the ships had landed safely, bringing nearly 1,000 passengers.

He took over the government from John Endicott and settled Boston. John kept extensive journals that were published nearly 200 years later as History of New England from 1630 to 1649 (1825-1826). He helped establish a Congregational Church, and lead the colony through their first hard winter. About 260 Bostonians left to find new homes in Massachusetts. This group included John Cotton, Thomas Dudley, Simon Bradstreet, Richard Bellingham, Edward Quincey. John Winthrop was Govenor of Boston almost continuously until his death. John served as governor 1629-34, 1637-40, 1642-44, 1646-49, and was deputy governor for ten years. He advocated a New England Confederation, and was first president when it was formed in 1643. After 19 years of devoted and untiring service on behalf of the MA Bay Colony, twelve of which he had been Governor, John Winthrop died on March 26, 1649 in his 62 year. He lies buried in what is now the King's Chapel Burying Ground in Boston. A statue in the Nation's Capitol at Washington and also one in Boston represent Governor Winthrop stepping ashore from the Arabella.

Winthrop's principles were high, and he was aristocratic.

He symbolizes the ambiguity of the Puritan mystique at the root of American national identity. Consider the importance ascribed to Winthrop's famous sermon, "The Modell of Christian Charity," which he wrote and possibly delivered on board the flagship Arbella when the Puritans were en route to America. More than the formulaic admonition that was customarily preached to shipmates at the launching of transatlantic voyages, it was the moral code for a godly society that Winthrop hoped would serve as a model for a reformed England. In later generations his prediction that "wee shall bee as a Citty upon a hill, the eyes of all people . upon us" evoked a self-conscious ideal against which the themes of each day were measured. Still later, the image would become a republican symbol of American exceptionalism and world mission, and ultimately an ideological touchstone for imperial diplomacy in the twentieth century.

Winthrop was a third-generation son of English landed gentry, whose religious aspirations were focused on the advancement of the Protestant Reformation in England and continental Europe. His migration to Massachusetts Bay was in response to "corruptions" he perceived in English society at a time when the Puritans were threatened with persecution as well as an unpromising economic future. His life and writings reveal a man caught in the broad overlap of the late medieval and early modern eras. His Journal is both an excellent source for early Massachusetts history and the chronicle of his personal efforts to secure the commonwealth as a gentry-dominated oligarchy.

Winthrop regarded the governorship as his lifetime position. But several defeats in colonial elections revealed a significant opposition to his arbitrary methods. His political ideal presupposed an interdependent community wherein all members had a prescribed place and function in the social hierarchy. Despite his legal training at the Inns of Court, he opposed the movement to curtail magistrates' authority by enacting a code of laws. Instead, he consistently defended discretionary rule and the magisterial veto over the resistance of the town deputies. In a famous speech to the General Court in 1645 he distinguished civil from natural liberty as that which "is maintained and exercised in a way of subjection to authority."

Winthrop's imperious treatment of dissenters may also be seen in the context of premodern social ideals that defined the religious mission of Massachusetts Bay Colony. To achieve a Puritan utopia, Winthrop and his colleagues committed themselves to a policy of intolerance. He played a leading role in prosecuting Anne Hutchinson and her supporters during the antinomian controversy (1636-1638) in ordering the capture of Rhode Island radical Samuel Gorton and his company at Shawomet to be tried and sentenced at Boston (1643) and in subduing the "Presbyterians" William Vassal, Robert Child, and Samuel Maverick for their "Remonstrance and Humble Petition" (1646), which called for a more liberal church membership policy. In each case, the possibility of English interference threatened the goals of Winthrop's godly society.

England accepted a limited toleration in the 1640s, but Massachusetts continued to punish dissenters, thus isolating itself from the mainstream of political culture abroad. Then, too, Boston's development into a seaport town was a process that made Winthrop's medieval standard of social relations anachronistic by the final decade of his life. Ironically, it was this transformation that refurbished Winthrop's "Citty upon a hill" imagery as an American emblem, one that related the themes of progress and declension in popular rhetoric.

1630, THE WINTHROP FLEET: Eleven vessels brought ' the Great Emigration' of this year,viz:


The first five ships sailed April 8 from Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, and arrived at Salem June 13 and following days. The other half of the fleet sailed in May and arrived in July at various dates. Altogether they brought about seven hundred passengers.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05.

Winthrop, John, 1588– 1649, governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony 1588– 1649, governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, b. Edwardstone, near Groton, Suffolk, England. Of a landowning family, he studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, came into a family fortune, and became a government administrator with strong Puritan leanings. A member of the Massachusetts Bay Company, he led the group that arranged for the removal of the company's government to New England and was chosen (1629) governor of the proposed colony. He arrived (1630) in the ship Arbella at Salem and shortly founded on Shawmut peninsula the settlement that became Boston. He was— with the possible exception of John Cotton— the most distinguished citizen of Massachusetts Bay colony, serving as governor some 12 times. He helped to shape the theocratic policy of the colony and opposed broad democracy. It was while he was deputy governor and Sir Henry Vane (1613– 62) was governor that Winthrop bitterly and successfully opposed the antinomian beliefs of Anne Hutchinson and her followers, who were supported by Vane. The force of his influence on the history of Massachusetts was enormous. Winthrop's journal, which was edited by J. K. Hosmer and published in 1908 as The History of New England from 1630 to 1649 is one of the most valuable of American historical sources. See The Journal of John Winthrop, 1630– 1649 (1996), abridged ed. by R. S. Dunn and L. Yeandle R. C. Winthrop, Life and Letters of John Winthrop (2 vol., 1864– 67 repr. 1971) Winthrop Papers (5 vol., 1929– 47) biographies by J. H. Twichell (1892), E. S. Morgan (1958), G. R. Raymer (1963), and F. J. Bremer (2003) R. S. Dunn, Puritans and Yankees (1962, repr. 1971). ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Governors of Massachusetts

Governor Massachusetts Bay Colony 1630-1634, 1637-1640, 1642-1644, 1646-1649

John Winthrop was the young Massachusetts Colony's most prominent leader, serving as Governor for fifteen of its first twenty years. In his famous "City on a Hill" speech, Winthrop articulated the Puritan hope that their community would be an example to the world. For Puritans did not merely seek to escape repression of their faith, they aspired to create a society based on that faith as a model to redeem their homeland.

In March of 1630, the Winthrop fleet of eleven vessels with more than 1,000 passengers onboard set off for Massachusetts. Unlike the Pilgrims who suffered through their passage and ended up 200 miles too far north during December, Winthrop and the Puritan settlers had a speedy passage, arriving in the warm weather of June and July at Salem where Governor John Endecott welcomed them.

Winthrop led the Puritans to Charlestown and eventually to the Shawmut Peninsula, because of its fresh water springs. An old Cambridge classmate of Winthrop's, the Reverend William Blackstone, who had been part of an earlier failed expedition, inhabited Shawmut. He invited the Massachusetts Bay Colony to join him on the Shawmut Peninsula. Settler Thomas Dudley, who would succeed Winthrop as the Colony's Governor, suggested the settlers name the new settlement "Boston." Dudley, as well as many of the settlers hailed from Boston in Lincolnshire, England. The name of their hometown recalled their desire to make a version of English society based on the principles of their faith.

In contemporary accounts Winthrop is often only recalled as the prosecutor of Anne Hutchinson. Winthrop's intolerant and even misogynistic nature was common among the zealous Puritan founders of Massachusetts. It often escapes contemporary readers that Winthrop was an able Governor in his time. He used the legal training he obtained as a young man studying law at the Inns of Court in London to effectively defend the Colony's charter in England. He was respected both by colonists in Massachusetts, as well as by the leaders of Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven who joined with Massachusetts in confederation and elected Winthrop their first chief executive.

Massachusetts Bay Colony Governor. He was instrumental in leading the first large wave of colonists from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the first major settlement in New England after the Plymouth Colony. He was born at Edwardstone, Suffolk, England, to a wealthy landowning and merchant family. In December 1602, he was admitted to Trinity College but soon left and married his first wife, Mary Forth, in April 1605. During this time, he became deeply religious in the Puritan faith. In 1613, he received the family holdings in Groton, and became squire of the Manor there. He soon followed his father's path as a lawyer in London, having been enrolled at Gray's Inn to study law. In 1624, Charles I ascended the English throne and was opposed to all religious groups who did not ascribe to the doctrine of the Church of England. In March 1629, Charles I dissolved the English Parliament and his continued religious intolerance and crackdown on the Puritans resulted in a decision for the some of the leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Company (who were mostly Puritans) to emigrate to New England. Winthrop was chosen as governor and on April 8, 1630, he sailed from the Isle of Wight with four ships that were part of a larger fleet of 11 ships, carrying 700 people to New England, arriving at Salem in June. They chose to settle at the present-day city of Boston, near the Charles River. In the early months the colony struggled with disease, losing about 200 people, including his son, Henry. He served as governor of the colony for 12 of its first 20 years of existence, being elected on four different occasions. He was generally civil and diplomatic towards the Native American population. However, cultural differences and trade issues, along with land ownership rights of the colonists that conflicted with the hunter-gatherer rights of the natives eventually evolved into a war with the Pequot tribe in 1637, which ended with the destruction of the tribe, whose survivors were sold as slaves to the West Indies or became enslaved by the colonists themselves. During his life, he continuously wrote accounts of historical events and religious manifestations. His major contributions to the literary world were "A Modell of Christian Charity" (1630) and "The History of New England" (1630-1649 also known as "The History of John Winthrop"), which remained unpublished until the late 18th century. He was married four times and had 16 children, his first three wives preceding him in death. He died of natural causes. (bio by: William Bjornstad)

Burial: Kings Chapel Burying Ground Boston Suffolk County Massachusetts, USA

Edit Virtual Cemetery info [?]

Birth: Jan. 23, 1588 Edwardstone Suffolk, England Death: Mar. 26, 1649 Boston Suffolk County Massachusetts, USA

Massachusetts Bay Colony Governor. He was instrumental in leading the first large wave of colonists from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the first major settlement in New England after the Plymouth Colony. He was born at Edwardstone, Suffolk, England, to a wealthy landowning and merchant family. In December 1602, he was admitted to Trinity College but soon left and married his first wife, Mary Forth, in April 1605. During this time, he became deeply religious in the Puritan faith. In 1613, he received the family holdings in Groton, and became squire of the Manor there. He soon followed his father's path as a lawyer in London, having been enrolled at Gray's Inn to study law. In 1624, Charles I ascended the English throne and was opposed to all religious groups who did not ascribe to the doctrine of the Church of England. In March 1629, Charles I dissolved the English Parliament and his continued religious intolerance and crackdown on the Puritans resulted in a decision for the some of the leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Company (who were mostly Puritans) to emigrate to New England. Winthrop was chosen as governor and on April 8, 1630, he sailed from the Isle of Wight with four ships that were part of a larger fleet of 11 ships, carrying 700 people to New England, arriving at Salem in June. They chose to settle at the present-day city of Boston, near the Charles River. In the early months the colony struggled with disease, losing about 200 people, including his son, Henry. He served as governor of the colony for 12 of its first 20 years of existence, being elected on four different occasions. He was generally civil and diplomatic towards the Native American population. However, cultural differences and trade issues, along with land ownership rights of the colonists that conflicted with the hunter-gatherer rights of the natives eventually evolved into a war with the Pequot tribe in 1637, which ended with the destruction of the tribe, whose survivors were sold as slaves to the West Indies or became enslaved by the colonists themselves. During his life, he continuously wrote accounts of historical events and religious manifestations. His major contributions to the literary world were "A Modell of Christian Charity" (1630) and "The History of New England" (1630-1649 also known as "The History of John Winthrop"), which remained unpublished until the late 18th century. He was married four times and had 16 children, his first three wives preceding him in death. He died of natural causes. (bio by: William Bjornstad)

Burial: Kings Chapel Burying Ground Boston Suffolk County Massachusetts, USA

Maintained by: Find A Grave Record added: Jan 01, 2001 Find A Grave Memorial# 1118

The City on a Hill Today

Winthrop’s inspiring words are still remembered and used by contemporary Americans who remain in awe of his courage, faith, and leadership under punishing conditions. Today, our country is wildly more multifaceted than the Puritan community of Massachusetts, and few Americans are as religiously devout as the Puritans were.

America has grown and evolved, but it remains very much the same experiment in self-government. Failure has always been a possibility and we are constantly, as a people, trying to, as Winthrop said, “avoid this shipwreck.”

After eight years in office, Reagan conveyed to the American people the state of their 400-year-old city upon a hill:

How stands the city on this winter night? More prosperous, more secure, and happier than it was eight years ago. But more than that: after 200 years, two centuries, she still stands strong and true on the granite ridge, and her glow has held steady no matter what storm. And she’s still a beacon, still a magnet for all who must have freedom, for all the Pilgrims from all the lost places who are hurtling through the darkness, toward home.

2020 will likely go down in history as one of American’s toughest years. In many ways, we have lost the freedom and independence that the brave and rugged Puritans established for themselves in America 400 years ago. Indeed, many of us look back longingly at the Reagan days, defined by support for free enterprise, innovation, and a decisive victory over the Communist Soviet Union.

This doesn’t mean, however, that we should sit back, throw up our hands, and say “the country is lost, I give up.” It’s a challenge. As Reagan said:

Freedom is a fragile thing and is never more than one generation away from extinction. It is not ours by inheritance it must be fought for and defended constantly by each generation, for it comes only once to a people. Those who have known freedom and then lost it have never known it again.

We continue to face similar struggles of cooperation, yet our cohesion as a nation still depends on loving our neighbors and preserving our freedoms. Absent the Christian faith that united and guided the Pilgrims and Puritans, survival today is in some ways more complicated and difficult. Yet we continue to return to the principles of our foundational freedoms, religious and otherwise.

We all know that our dreams, as well as the hopes and dreams of our ancestors who first came to America, are dreams that could never be realized anywhere else. I n the same way that the Puritans held fast to their creed, the “Model of Christian Charity,” if we continue to fight for and uphold truths and principles contained in the Declaration and the Constitution, we will prosper. Just as importantly, that success will ensure that we will become models and beacons of liberty and prosperity to others around the world who hope to also become a “shining city upon a hill.”

Copyright © 2021 The Federalist, a wholly independent division of FDRLST Media, All Rights Reserved.

Watch the video: John Winthrop