The Golden Shrine of Queen Tiye: Reburial of a Rebel Ruler and His Mother - Part II

The Golden Shrine of Queen Tiye: Reburial of a Rebel Ruler and His Mother - Part II

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

When he came to the throne, Pharaoh Tutankhamun set about transporting the royal remains of his immediate ancestors from Amarna to Thebes. The inhabitants of the Sun City had also begun to slowly make their way back to familiar ground on the new ruler’s orders. With no one left to guard remote Amarna in Middle Egypt, the tombs of the boy king’s family were vulnerable to looting. But how did the old priesthood that had suffered greatly at the hands of his predecessor, Akhenaten, allow the reviled family to be re-buried in the sacred necropolis at Thebes? Was it because they revered Queen Tiye; or was it due to the fact that first Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten and then young Tutankhamun himself had worked towards reinstating the state god Amun? Tomb 55 can help us piece events of this turbulent period.

(Read Part I here)

Through the decades - from its discovery in 1907 - in the battered confines of Tomb 55, speculation and debate have raged over the identity of the mummy found in this stunningly beautiful, yet cruelly defaced, rishi-style coffin. The candidates proposed initially comprised the who’s who of Amarna royalty: Queen Tiye, Kiya, Akhenaten, Meritaten and Smenkhkare. Recent tests have suggested the Heretic was the last owner of the coffin; but not everyone is convinced. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.

Uneasy Co-Existence between the Aten and Amun

It is certain that young Tutankhamun could not have decreed the return of his deceased family members to the ancient capital, Thebes. The priests Aye and Horemheb would surely have had a say in matters, for they appear to have nursed ambitions to occupy high office, and were virtually the de facto rulers—at least during the early years of Tutankhamun’s reign. Moreover, as the real power centers behind the throne, the duo would have understood well that the only way in which to undo the untold damage that Akhenaten’s reign had wreaked on the country, was to get into the good books of the powerful Amun priesthood once again. And so, whilst not completely ignoring the Aten as a god, a new alliance-of-sorts was forged with the Amun cult that automatically meant relegating the solar deity to minor status as before.

Ancient Egyptian culture during the 18th Dynasty

Table of dates for the history of Egypt, adapted from various sources.

First to Twentieth Dynasties
Date Dynasty Period Duration
3 100 - 2 890 BC First Dynasty Archaic/Early Dynastic Period 214
2 890 - 2 670 BC Second Dynasty Archaic/Early Dynastic Period 220
2 670 - 2 613 BC Third Dynasty Old Kingdom 57
2 613 - 2 494 BC Fourth Dynasty Old Kingdom - Golden Age 119
2 494 - 2 345 BC Fifth Dynasty Old Kingdom 149
2 345 - 2 181 BC Sixth Dynasty Old Kingdom 164
2 181 - 2 160 BC Seventh and Eighth Dynasties First Intermediate Period 21
2 160 - 2 134 BC Ninth and Tenth Dynasties First Intermediate Period 26
2 134 - 1 991 BC Eleventh Dynasty Middle Kingdom 43
1 991 - 1 802 BC Twelfth Dynasty Middle Kingdom 189
1 802 - 1 649 BC Thirteenth Dynasty
From Memphis, over Middle and Upper Egypt
Middle Kingdom 153
1 805 - 1 650 BC Fourteenth Dynasty
From Avaris, Nile Delta, over Lower Egypt
Second Intermediate Period 155
1 650 - 1 550 BC Fifteenth Dynasty
First Hyksos dynasty, ruled from Avaris,
without control of the entire land
Second Intermediate Period 100
1 649 - 1 582 BC Sixteenth Dynasty
Ruled the Theban region in Upper Egypt
The Hyksos ruled the delta
The Kingdom of Kush ruled Upper Egypt
Second Intermediate Period 67
1 580 - 1 550 BC Seventeenth Dynasty
Ruled Thebes, Hyksos ruled the delta
Second Intermediate Period / New Kingdom 30
1 543 - 1 292 BC Eighteenth Dynasty
Egypt reaches the peak of its power
New Kingdom 251
1 292 - 1 187 BC Nineteenth Dynasty
Conquests in Canaan
New Kingdom 105
1 187 - 1 077 BC Twentieth Dynasty End of the New Kingdom 110

Table of dates for the First to Twentieth Dynasties, from various sources, mostly via Wikipedia

Timeline for early Egypt, from 11 000 BC to 2 500 BC.

Photo: Poster, British Museum © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015

The eighteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty XVIII) is the best known ancient Egyptian dynasty. It boasts several of Egypt's most famous pharaohs, including Tutankhamun, whose tomb was found by Howard Carter in 1922. The dynasty is also known as the Thutmosid Dynasty for the four pharaohs named Thutmose (English: Thoth bore him).

Famous pharaohs of Dynasty XVIII include Hatshepsut (circa 1 479 BC - 1 458 BC), longest-reigning woman-pharaoh of an indigenous dynasty, and Akhenaten (circa 1 353 BC - 1 336 BC), the 'heretic pharaoh', with his queen, Nefertiti.

Dynasty XVIII is the first of the three dynasties of the Egyptian New Kingdom, the period in which ancient Egypt reached the peak of its power.

Eighteenth Dynasty
Name Horus (Throne) Name Consort Burial Years Dates Comments
Ahmose I
(Amasis I)
Nebpehtire Ahmose-Nefertari
25 1 550 BC - 1 525 BC The warrior king Ahmose, founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty, vanquished the foreign Hyksos rulers, reunited Egypt, and initiated the New Kingdom.
Amenhotep I Djeserkare Ahmose-Meritamon KV39? or Tomb ANB? 22 1 525 BC - 1 503 BC
Thutmose I Akheperkare Ahmose
KV20, KV38 10 1 503 BC - 1 493 BC
Thutmose II Akheperenre Hatshepsut
KV42? 14 1 493 BC - 1 479 BC
Queen Hatshepsut Maatkare Thutmose II KV20 21 1 479 BC - 1 458 BC Hatshepsut ruled jointly with Thutmose III, who had ascended to the throne the previous year as a child of about two years old. Hatshepsut was the chief wife of Thutmose II, Thutmose III's father.
Thutmose III Menkheper(en)re Satiah
Menhet, Menwi and Merti
KV34 54 1 479 BC - 1 425 BC
Amenhotep II Akheperure Tiaa KV35 27 1 425 BC - 1 398 BC
Thutmose IV Menkheperure Nefertari
Daughter of Artatama I of Mitanni
KV43 10 1 398 BC - 1 388 BC
Amenhotep III Nebmaatre Tiye
Gilukhipa of Mitanni
Tadukhipa of Mitanni
Daughter of KurigalzuI I
of Babylon
Daughter of Kadashman-Enlil of Babylon
Daughter of Tarhundaradu of Arzawa
Daughter of the ruler of Ammia
KV22 38 1 388 BC - 1 350 BC Amenhotep's father, Tuthmosis IV, left his son an empire of immense size, wealth, and power. He was only twelve years old when he came to the throne and married Tiye in a royal ceremony. He was a master of diplomacy, who placed other nations in his debt through lavish gifts of gold so that they would be inclined to bend to his wishes, which they invariably did.
Amenhotep IV/
Neferkepherure-Waenre Nefertiti
Tadukhipa of Mitanni
Daughter of Šatiya, ruler of Enišasi
Daughter of Burna-Buriash II, King
of Babylon
Royal Tomb
of Akhenaten
17 1 351 BC - 1 334 BC
Smenkhkare Ankhkheperure Meritaten 1 1 335 BC - 1 334 BC
Neferneferuaten Ankhkheperure Akhenaten?
2 1 334 BC - 1 332 BC
Tutankhamun Nebkheperure Ankhesenamun KV62 9 1 332 BC - 1 323 BC
Ay Kheperkheperure Ankhesenamun
KV23 4 1 323 BC - 1 319 BC
Horemheb Djeserkheperure-Setepenre Mutnedjmet
KV57 27 1 319 BC - 1 292 BC

Table of Eighteenth Dynasty Rulers, data chiefly from Wikipedia, with some text from Joshua J. Mark, at

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Limestone shabti of King Ahmose: the features on this small face hark back to royal Theban sculpture of the early Middle Kingdom. Its face is tapered, and the eyebrows and upper contours of the eyes are strongly arched. There are seven rows of incised hieroglyphic text at waist-level. The foot of this shabti is damaged. Circa 1 550 BC - 1 525 BC

Dimensions: Height 289 mm, width 82 mm, depth 65 mm.

Incised in seven lines at the waist, an inscription gives Ahmose's names in cartouches, followed by the 'shabti spell', Spell 6 in the 'Book of the Dead'.

This shabti is an important historical document in its own right, for it is one of only three surviving representations of the warrior king Ahmose, founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty, who vanquished the foreign Hyksos rulers, reunited Egypt, and initiated the New Kingdom. Presumably this figure comes from his tomb, which is believed to have been at Thebes, but which has not been located. This is also the oldest known royal shabti.

Catalog: Limestone, Thebes, EA32191
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum,, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Stele of Pharaoh Ahmose I, circa 1 535 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, Thebes, Inv. Nr. 1935.200.209

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Lower half of a sandstone seated statue of Ahmose-Turi from Kerma, Circa 1530 BC.

Ahmose-Turi was viceroy of Kush under Pharaohs Amenhotep I and Thutmose I.

The hieroglyphic inscription on the sides of the throne invoke the gods Osiris, Horus Lord of Buhen and Dedwen (a native Nubian god), and gives the names of Ahmose' s parents.

Abyssinia, or Ethiopia, was known as Kush to the ancient Egyptians.

Catalog: EA1279
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Small stele with Pharaoh Amenhotep I in front of the god Ptah sacrificing.

Reign of Amenhotop 1, 524 BC - 1 503 BC.

The Pharaoh (right), who can be identified by his cartouche, hands with both hands (wine) vessels to the god 'Ptah, perfect in face, the Lord of truth'. In return to Pharaoh, the god (hieroglyphics between the two) says: 'I give (you) power of guidance'.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Seated group of the priest Ki-nebu and his wife Iset.

Iset or Aset is an Ancient Egyptian name, meaning '(She) of the throne'. It was the name of the goddess better known by her Greek name Isis.

Circa 1390 to 1353 BC, remodelled in the 20th Dynasty (Ramses VIII), circa 1140 BC.

The style and clothing of the figures clearly indicate that they were made at the end of the 18th Dynasty. Later, the group came into the possession of new owners and was adapted to the prevailing fashion.

Height 410 mm, width 405 mm, depth 310 mm.

If the tomb of the Amun priest Ki-nebu and his wife, the Amun musician Iset (Isis), did not contain an inscription by Ramesses VIII, this group would never have been dated to the end of the Ramesside period (19th - 20th Dynasties), since in its masterly execution and style it is directly attributable to the late 18th Dynasty. It is thus one of the last testimonies to the great courtly and elegant art of Thebes. Both spouses wear richly pleated dresses and heavy wigs, Iset with a wreath of flowers.

A characteristic criterion for all Egyptian group statues can be seen here: The spouses are sitting next to each other, the woman even puts her arm around the husband's back.

Nevertheless, this gesture remains purely symbolic, for attachment and affection are only implied, but not really developed.

Both remain in isolation, do not lean towards each other, but are aligned completely straight, i.e. not 'merged', but only 'added'.

This finding, which is in no way to be understood as a value judgement, is rooted in the Egyptian canon, which does not seek to reproduce a diagram, but rather a known content expressed in an abstract formula.

This form of objectivity is often broken in flat paintings and engravings from Ancient Egypt. But in group sculpture, however personal and sensitive the individual figure may be, it is not broken, even in Amarna art.

The surfaces of the base and the back plate are densely covered with inscriptions (names and prayers) and representations.

In front, between the couple is their son, offering incense. On the reverse side is Horus in the form of the god of the dead, Sokar / Seker. On the upper register, the jackal-headed Anubis tends the corpse of Osiris on the lion bed, with Isis and Nephtys standing at its ends.

Ki-nebu and Iset pour out a donation of water, thus assisting in the expectation that the god may grant them a similar dispensation in the hereafter. In the lower register, the couple receive the funeral sacrifice from their sons Amanhatpa and Hori.

Catalog: Limestone, painted, Thebes-West, from the collection of August Kestner, Inv. no. 2945
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover
Additional text: Cramer (1936)

Inmitten von Gegenstanden wie Schmuckstucken, Mitteln der Korperpflege und bildern freundlich gesonneneer Machte, die die frohliche, weltsugewandte Seite des agyptischen Lebens reprasentieren, nehmen diese beiden objekte sich unheimlich und scheinbar vollig fehl am Platze aus Dennoch kann die Zuornung sich auf einen festbrauch berufen, der wenn auch in einer grieschischen quelle, ausdrucklich bezeugt ist. Herodot ersahft: Beiim Gastmahl der reichen tragt nach dem essen ein mann ein holzernes leichen bildnis in einem Sarg umher. Es ist vollendet geformt und gemalt und im ganzen zwei Ellen lang. Der trager halt es jedem Zechgenossen vor und sagt 'Schau ihn dir an, dann trink und sei frohlich, wenn du toto bist, wirst du auch so assehen. (Herodot II, 78) Obwohl die maße sehr viel kleiner sind, konnen beide Bildnisse nur als Belege fur das 'memento mori' gelten, das dem griechischen Beobachter als besonders typisch aufgefallen ist.

In the late Eighteenth Dynasty a new sort of anthropoid coffin came into use alongside the black-painted type. By the reign of Ramses II the new type had superseded the older.

The ground was yellow, with decorations in red, light blue and dark blue, all covered by a varnish that has darkened over time and changed the blues to greens. The new scheme imitated gold and coloured inlay, and exceptional coffins used gold rather than paint. It became normal to show the forearms crossed on the chest underneath the elaborate collar through which the hands protrude. Women's hands were usually depicted open and men's clenched, holding amulets.

Below the collar a kneeling figure of the goddess Nut spreads her wings in protection. On the lower part of the lid the spaces between the bands of text show the deceased and deities, burial rites, and various scenes taken from the decorative repertory of tomb chapels. On the case Thoth and the four sons of Horus are still depicted.

Traditionally the coffin showed the deceased in an idealised form wearing the divine three part wig, and, if male, the long beard associated with male gods.

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Wooden anthropoid coffin of Taiuy.

Painted detail on plaster including rishi-pattern and hieroglyphic text.

Early 18th Dynasty, circa 1 550 BC - 1 500 BC. Sycomore fig coffin in the Rishi style, inscribed for the lady Taiuwy. From Birabi, Thebes / Luxor, intrusive burial in tomb 41.

This coffin was prefabricated, and the owner's name was inserted into a blank space in the central inscription. The large painted wings possibly represent those of protective godesses, or may derive from the decoration of masks of the Second Intermediate period.

In this late example of the Rishi style, the striped wig and transverse bands foreshadow the design of the classic 18th Dynasty coffins.

Catalog: EA54350
Photo (left): ©Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Photo (right): Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: and card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Neferhebef, his wife and son.

Limestone, the most common stone in the north of the country, is of varying fineness and quality depending on the quarry.

( it would appear that the museum curator is gently bringing attention to the poor quality of the limestone used in this particular group statue. In addition, the quality of workmanship is, in my opinion, fair at best - Don )

Neferhebef is seated, wearing a kilt, a wig with curls, and holding his wife by the waist. His wife Taiounes is seated beside him, wearing a dress and a wraparound wig, and an Usekh necklace. This is a type of broad collar or necklace. Deities, women, and men were depicted wearing this jewellery. It is typically adorned with closely placed rows of coloured stone beads, or it is made entirely of metal. The collars were connected with clasps of gold.

At their feet is their son, Benermerout, seated, with one knee up.

Height 350 mm, width 178 mm, depth 185 mm.

The style places this piece within the reigns of Thutmose III and Amenhotep II, his son.

Catalog: Limestone, painted, Thebes, Aile Sully, Room 334, Materials and Techniques, Vitrine 4, A 57, N 58
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Louvre Museum, Paris, France,
Additional text: Wikipedia

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Spoon in the shape of an Oryx

This cosmetics spoon has been identified as being of Egyptian Blue, or Cuprorivaite. This is a pigment with the formula CaCuSi 4 O 10 which can be made by heating a mixture of a calcium compound (carbonate, sulfate or hydroxide), copper compound (oxide or malachite) and quartz in proportions that correspond to a ratio of 4 SiO 2 : 1 CaO: 1 CuO to a temperature of 900°C using a flux of sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate or borax.

The powder was moulded and annealed to make beads and small objects.

Egyptian blue shows exceptional luminescence in the near-infrared region. This means that the pigment can be easily detected in a completely non-destructive fashion simply by illuminating ancient works of art with near-infrared radiation. The luminescence is so strong that the presence of minute amounts of Egyptian blue can be detected even when no blue colour is visible to the naked eye. The British Museum was able to use this technique to provide the first proof that the Elgin Marbles had once been painted, finding the pigment on several sculptures from the Parthenon.

Length 135 mm, width 60 mm.

Catalog: Egyptian Blue, Aile Sully, Room 334, Materials and Techniques, Vitrine 6, E 3217
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Louvre Museum, Paris, France,
Additional text:,

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Temple relief showing Pharoah Thutmose II in front of an offering table, circa 1 480 BC

Found at Deir el-Bahari, a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. This is a part of the Theban Necropolis.

Catalog: Limestone, Deir el-Bahari, Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, Hatchepsut, ÄM 1623
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin
Additional text: Wikipedia

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Two hounds have pulled down a scimitar-horned oryx.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Two seated figures of Baket, circa 1 500 BC

In the inscription it says that Baket is to be supplied by speech offerings in the hereafter. Her posture corresponds to the relief of Dschefanesut (Jefanesut): Baket also holds one hand in front of her chest and the other is lying on her thigh and 'reaches' for offerings before her, but these are only mentioned in the inscription on her seat and are not really placed in front of her.

The statuettes were donated to Baket 'by her brother (i.e. husband), Aman-wen-her, who (always) keeps her name alive' and thus she will be eternal in the hereafter.

(left) Height 136 mm, width 51 mm, depth 94 mm.

Catalog: Limestone, painted, Thebes, (left) Inv. Nr. 1935.200.107
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover

Kerma was the capital city of the Kerma Culture, which was located in present-day Sudan at least 5500 years ago. Kerma is one of the largest archaeological sites in ancient Nubia. It has produced decades of extensive excavations and research, including thousands of graves and tombs and the residential quarters of the main city surrounding the Western/Lower Deffufa.

Around 3 000 BC, a cultural tradition began around Kerma. It was a large urban centre that was built around a large adobe temple known as the Western Deffufa.

Photo: Lassi via Wikipedia
Permission: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International, 3.0 Unported, 2.5 Generic, 2.0 Generic and 1.0 Generic license
Text: Adapted from Wikipedia

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Sandstone stela dated to Year 8 of Pharaoh Amenhotep I, from Qasr Ibrim, circa 1 530 BC.

The scene shows the king making offerings to the god Horus of Miam (modern-day Aniba). He is accompanied by his mother, Queen Ahmose-Nefertary, and a second royal female, possibly his wife Queen Merytamun (whose name appears to have been excised and later inaccurately restored as Ahmose-Nefertary).

Below is a hieroglyphic text boasting of the power of the pharaoh over foreign lands.

Catalog: EA1835
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

From the tomb of Dua-Neheh, First Royal Herald, Overseer of the possessions of Amun.

Circa 1 480 BC during the reign of Hatshepsut.

Catalog: Painted limestone, Thebes West, Tomb No. 125
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover
Additional text: Wikipedia

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Thutmose III, circa 1 479 BC

The Opet Festival became a mainstream festival in the early New Kingdom (circa 1 539 BC - 1 075 BC) when the 18th dynasty came to power, after driving out the Hyksos invaders who had occupied the northern part of the Nile Valley for 200 years.

Egypt's new rulers wasted no time in making its capital city Thebes a vast ceremonial stage to celebrate the consolidation of power, and the Opet festival took centre stage. During the reign of Thutmose III (1 479 BC - 1 425 BC), the festival lasted for 11 days. As part of this festival, when the Nile flooded, the statues of the gods were carried from Karnak to Luxor.

Catalog: Limestone, Thebes, Deir el-Bahan, Inv. Nr. 1935.200.200
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover
Additional text: Escolano-Poveda (2019) , via Wikipedia

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Kneeling figure of Queen Hatshepsut with Nemset jug, a cultic vessel, circa 1 475 BC.

Dimensions: 870 x 370 x 570 mm

Hatshepsut was one of the few women to rise to the throne as Pharaoh. She was the daughter of King Thutmose I and the wife of her half-brother Thutmose II, who died at an early age, and she was the regent for the government affairs for her husband's son Thutmose III, who was born to a co-wife and was a minor when he ascended the throne.

Probably in the 7th year of her reign, she was crowned king. She justified her claim to rule with her election by the imperial god Amun. In the terraced mortuary temple built by her favourite in Deir el-Bahari, she had the legend of her divine birth depicted in a relief sequence.

Their over 20-year reign was peaceful, with an outstanding event being the sending of an expedition to the legendary incense land of Punt. ( The Land of Punt was an ancient kingdom. A trading partner of Egypt, it was known for producing and exporting gold, aromatic resins, blackwood, ebony, ivory and wild animals. Its exact location is not known - Don )

After Hatshepsut assumed rule as Pharaoh, she was now presented as such, ie as a man. As a king with the prescribed ceremonial clothing with a bare torso, royal headscarf, ceremonial beard and short apron, she kneels before the god and presents him with a water jug, on the front of which is the symbol for 'duration, permanence'. Nevertheless, the artist understood how to include feminine features on the queen's face. They radiate youthfulness through the gentle curvature of the face shape, the curved eyebrows, the large eyes and the graceful mouth. The liveliness is emphasised by the black painting of the eyes and brows. The figure is part of a series of similar portraits from the Queen's Temple.

Catalog: Pink granite, painted, Western Thebes, Deir el Bahari, ÄM 22883
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin , (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)-->
Additional text: Wikipedia

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Fragments of reliefs from the tomb of Hatshepsut: Egyptian soldiers and Nubian mercenaries, circa 1470 BC.

The tomb of Hatshepsut dates from the 18th dynasty and is the best preserved temple in Deir el-Bahari on the west bank of the Nile at Thebes.

(top, ÄM 18542) 315 x 425 x 65 mm.

The relief comes from the Temple of Queen Hatshepsut in Deir el-Bahari and shows a series of soldiers who are participating in a procession. They are armed with throwing sticks and axes, and carry olive branches. One of the soldiers holds a standard, on which decorated horses are to be seen, and which indicates the troop the men are part of.

(middle, ÄM 14507), 330 x 585 mm

(bottom, ÄM 14141) The soldiers in this panel are armed with axes and bows and arrows.

Catalog: Painted Limestone, ÄM 18542, ÄM 14507, ÄM 14141
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, F. Seyfried at (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Kneeling figure of the architect Senenmut holding a symbol of the goddess Hathor

New Kingdom, circa 1 470 BC

Catalog: Granite, Armant, ÄS 6265
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Part of a painted limestone stela with Pharaoh Thutmose III making offerings to the god Horus, who will have been depicted on the missing left side of the stone.

From Wadi Halfa, circa 1 470 BC.

Catalog: EA1021
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

(left) Pink granite obelisk of Queen Hatshepsut, early 1 400s BC, from Qasr Ibrim.

On one side it is inscribed with the names of the queen described as 'beloved of Horus, Lord of Miam (modern-day Aniba), living forever like Ra'. The names were later erased as an attempt to remove her memory from history.

(right) Sandstone door-jamb with the name of Pharaoh Thutmose Ill, from Buhen, about 1 470 BC.

The door-jamb bears an incised hieroglyphic text on the front, including the name of the pharaoh, who is described as 'beloved of the god Horus Lord of Buhen'.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0,

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Temple sculpture of Hatshepsut, sitting on a throne with close-fitting dress and king's headscarf, circa 1 473 - 1 458 BC.

Dimensions: 57 x 41 x 30 cm (torso) 170 x 41 x 90 (whole sculpture) circa 600 kg (after reconstruction) weight with box: 967 kg.

Hatshepsut ruled jointly with Thutmose III, who had ascended to the throne the previous year as a child of about two years old. Hatshepsut was the chief wife of Thutmose II, Thutmose III's father.

Hatshepsut is one of the rare ruling queens of ancient Egypt. This image shows her with the royal head cloth (nemes). This sculpture was originally with about two hundred others in Hatshepsut's mortuary temple in Thebes.

All sculptures were removed from it and smashed by Hatshepsut's stepson, Thutmose III, once he alone was the Pharoah. The torso of this sculpture ended up in the RMO, and the head and the lower half at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. It was not until 1998 that the parts were joined together, 3 500 years after they separated.

Catalog: Pink granite, F 1928 / 9.2
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden,

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Head from a statue of the queen Hatshepsut as Pharaoh, wearing the royal headdress.

New Kingdom, circa 1 460 BC

Catalog: Pink granite, ÄS 5900
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Head of a statue of Hatshepsut or of King Thumose III, circa 1 460 - 1 450 BC.

Catalog: Carbonatite (?), ÄM 34431
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Mentechenu, an official from the time of Amenhotep II, was ' the Captain of the Guard at the gate of the royal palaces ', with the honorary rank of ' wrist-bearer on the right hand of the king '. As a sign of his rank he holds a small ostrich feather in his left hand. Another of his titles is 'Fanbearer of the King'. He is dressed in a long robe, which shows the right breast above the waist.

Around his neck Mentechenu wears two chains of golden rings, the so-called ' gold of bravery '. This award may indicate that he was a career officer, although the inscriptions only cite the official titles from his civilian career. It was customary, however, to appoint officers who had been discharged from the service into the state or priestly administrative apparatus. The inscriptions characterise the portrait as a temple figure.

Height 830 mm, circa 1 450 BC - 1 425 BC.

Catalog: Granodiorite, Thebes - Karnak, ÄM 19289
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Upper part of a Toeris or Tawaret, a protective ancient Egyptian goddess of childbirth and fertility.

The deity is typically depicted as a bipedal female hippopotamus with feline attributes, pendulous female human breasts, the limbs and paws of a lion, and the back and tail of a Nile crocodile.

Dr. phil. Christian E. Loeben, for the last 10 years keeper of Egyptian and Islamic Art at the Museum August Kestner, said in a lecture that this piece is one of the most important treasures of the Museum.

Just in the head, it has the teeth of a crocodile, the snout of a lion, and the eyes of a hippo.

This particularly valuable fragment bears a yellow detailed drawing on a blue background and a cartouche with the throne name Amenhotep II on the right upper arm, so that the object may come from the private property of the king.

The name Taweret means 'she who is great' or simply 'great one', a common pacificatory address to dangerous deities.

Catalog: Faience, place of discovery unknown, 2616
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover
Additional text: Wikipedia

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Reign of Amenhotep III, circa 1 390 BC – 1 353 BC.

A menat necklace consists of a heavy, keyhole-shaped counterpoise (menat) and many strands of beads. Although the necklace is sometimes shown being worn, it was more often carried by females participating in religious ceremonies. It functioned as a percussion instrument that was shaken to create a soothing noise that was thought to appease a god or goddess. In the New Kingdom the menat necklace and sistrum were attributes of women who held the title 'Singer of Amun-Re' such as Renenutet, who is depicted holding her menat on her lap in a statue.

In the early 20th century, the Museum conducted excavations at Malqata, a site at the southern end of the Theban necropolis where Amenhotep III had built a festival city for the celebration of his three jubilees (or heb seds). This miraculously preserved menat necklace and two single-strand necklaces of beads and amulets were found in the corner of a room in a private house near the King's Palace. According to the excavators, the three necklaces had been placed in a linen bag, traces of which were still visible.

Dimensions: Length of counterpoise 147 mm.

Catalog: Faience, bronze or copper alloy, glass, agate, carnelian, lapis lazuli, turquoise, Thebes, Malqata, Birket Habu Mound B 1, Private House B, MMA excavations, 1911–12, Accession Number 11.215.450
Photo: CC0 1.0, Public Domain

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Handle in the form of a duck neck and head, bronze, length 245 mm, width 30 mm, thickness 5 mm. Middle 18th Dynasty.

Catalog: Bronze, West Thebes, E 3673
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Louvre Museum, Paris, France,

(left) Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Scribe's palette with two round cups, calamus (writing pens made from a hollow reed), ink.

An inscription/dedication/signature to Tutankhamun.

Length 370 mm, width 55 mm, thickness 13 mm.

Catalog: Wood, writing implements, ink, Thebes, Room 335 Aile Sully, Level 0, N 2241.

(right) Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Scribe's palette with 7 oblong cups, calamus, and ink.

It bears an inscription naming Sety I , 1 290 BC - 1 276 BC.

Height 410 mm, width 52 mm, thickness 12 mm.

Catalog: Wood, writing implements, ink, Thebes, Room 335 Aile Sully, Level 0, N 2274

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Louvre Museum, Paris, France,

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Faience personalised ring in the form of a signet ring.

The ring plate is rendered as openwork and shows, as if enclosed in a cartouche, the three hieroglyphs of the throne name Amenhotep III, Nebmaatre, Neb-Maat-Re - Lord of the divine world order is ( the sun god ) Re.

Despite the beautiful cobalt blue glaze, however, it can be assumed with some certainty that the ring did not belong to the king himself, but was given by him as a token of honour.

The name here perhaps also stands for that of a protective deity, for at least in Nubia Amenhotep III / Amenophis III, like kings of the Middle Kingdom before him, had himself divinely worshipped.

Comparable to this are the commemorative scarabs of this ruler, albeit much more elaborate, in which he immortalised various events of his reign that seemed essential to him and which he openly presented to dignitaries who were particularly worthy of distinction.

Catalog: Faience, place of discovery unknown, 1935.146
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Wooden figurine of a female servant, carrying an object on the left shoulder, the left forearm is lost. It is possibly a cosmetic item, funerary equipment, Amenophis III / Amenhotep III (?), 1 388 BC - 1 350 BC

Partially painted, with the remains of gilded pastiglia.

Pastiglia is an Italian term meaning 'pastework', and consists of low relief decoration, normally modelled in gesso or white lead, applied to build up a surface that may then be gilded or painted, or left plain.

Dimensions: 135 x 40 x 30 mm.

Catalog: Wood, Thebes West (?) ÄM 14389
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text:, Wikipedia

Habiba Gallery in Luxor: Fair Trade Handicrafts

If you’re staying in Luxor, be sure to stop into Habiba Gallery to pick up some local handicrafts — and say hi to Linda, who owns the shop.

Wally and I have never met a souk we didn’t like. As our time in Luxor neared its end, we made arrangements with the concierge at our amazing hotel, Al Moudira, to take us across the Nile to shop for souvenirs.

We arrived about 20 minutes later, outside the atmospheric pavilion that serves as the tourist market of Luxor. You’ll know you’re there when you see the massive louvered wooden pergola flanked by a pair of smaller pergolas and the name El-Souk emblazoned above the entrance. For a moment I felt like we were stepping into the city’s past as horse-drawn carriages trotted by while I was taking a photo.

“ The shelves of Habiba are lovingly stocked with curated goods that represent the vast array of Egypt’s cultural richness and craft heritage.

Local producers, many of them women, are supported through the principles of fair trade, providing a path to economic self-sufficiency. ”

Beneath the latticework archway lies the entrance to the Luxor souk — just be careful of the horse and carriages.

Inside the pedestrian-friendly bazaar are merchants selling spices and shops selling scarves, djellabas, trinkets, alabaster, statuettes and more. It wasn’t exactly bustling — we were there on a Sunday, and as Luxor has a large Coptic Christian population, many stalls were closed — but that was fine by me.

After haggling at a few stalls in the market, our eyes lit up when we spotted Habiba Gallery, located on Andrawes Pasha, a side street running off the main souk. Wally and I have always had a passion for handicrafts, and the shop came highly recommended by Zeina Aboukheir, the “boss lady” proprietor of Al Moudira.

A playful textile depicting village life, including a watermelon vendor and colorful birds in a cage

UnCommon Threads: Every item Has A Story

As we excitedly began to collect items we wanted to buy, Linda Wheeler, an Australian expat and the owner of Habiba Gallery, began sharing the stories behind the pieces. One of the first of many to catch our eye were a group of earthenware pottery. It was difficult to choose between the unique handmade pieces, but ultimately we settled upon a couple of plates, and a serving vessel in the shape of a cow.

Duke and Wally couldn’t resist this dish shaped like a cow — at least they think it’s shaped like a cow.

Linda explained to us that the handmade pottery came from Tunis, a small village located in the Fayoum Oasis. The pieces were made by the former students of Swiss-born ceramicist Evelyne Porret. In 1989, Evelyne and her husband, Michel, established a pottery school to mentor and nurture the talents of the children of Tunis. Like Linda, Evelyne and Michel laid the foundation for locals to embrace an entrepreneurial spirit, and many of their students now run small businesses of their own.

Fun natural patterns adorn the plates we bought. The prices at Habiba are fair — no haggling necessary!

The next item was a supersized, Egyptian cotton hammam towel or blanket from Naquadah, a predominantly Coptic village located on the West Bank of the Nile River just south of Luxor. The fine textiles are woven by the local women, who have preserved the traditional craft of manual looming — practiced there since pharaonic times.

Linda told us how her conversations with the producer of these textiles eventually led to the subtle variation in style we saw before us. We chose one with a simple deep blue striped pattern and hand-knotted fringe.

This was quickly followed by a brightly colored embroidered textile with a whimsical scene depicting village life and a tote bag with a block-printed fly pattern. No one can deny a fly’s persistence, and the Ancient Egyptians viewed this trait as a positive attribute. Pharaohs were known to have presented military personnel with a golden fly amulet to acknowledge an individual’s success and tenacity. We now better understood the impressive necklace with three flies on it that we had seen at the Luxor Museum.

Wally regaled Linda with a story about how I was unable to exercise discipline when it came to negotiating — in fairness, I had caved rather easily at the shop we visited beforehand, but I was not going to leave Egypt without a few rather authentic-looking objects. Linda diplomatically replied, “Well, if you love them, then it was worth it. And if you think you’re getting a good deal, then that’s OK.”

The shelves of the shop are lovingly stocked with curated goods that represent the vast array of Egypt’s cultural richness and craft heritage. Local producers, many of them women, are supported through the principles of fair trade, providing a path to economic self-sufficiency.

Whimsical hand-painted wooden spindle dolls reminded Duke of Japanese kokeshi.

One of the refreshing things about Habiba is that everything is clearly marked, so there’s no need to ask for the price or haggle. Linda was never pushy and allowed us to peruse the shop at our own pace. After about 20 minutes, we had a large stack piled on the counter — quite a few things for ourselves as well as presents for family and friends.

Linda, an Aussie expat, started Habiba with a sewing machine and a dream. The shop now showcases gorgeous handicrafts made by women’s collectives in Egypt.

The Story of Habiba and Its Goal of Female Empowerment

It all started when Linda brought her trusty sewing machine with her to Luxor.

“The idea was to impart my simple skills and love of sewing onto the ladies in Karnak,” Linda says. “Some were widowed, divorced or illiterate, and I hoped to encourage them to make their own clothing. But this was a daunting task, so I reverted to beadwork, a traditional technique familiar to the women, and discovered they were happy to apply their skills to smaller items such as accessories.”

Wanting to find a way to improve these marginalized women’s livelihoods and provide them with a sustainable source of income, Linda decided to open a shop to sell their products. She chose Habiba, the Arabic word for “beloved,” and, with the help of Abd el Shafy, who assisted with the maze of bureaucracy, her dream came true.

Habiba is filled with beautiful handicrafts like these wooden boxes with geometric mother of pearl marquetry.

At first, the shop didn’t offer a large range of items. “I borrowed a black jalabiya and headscarf and set out with my friend Sahar to find additional handicrafts,” Linda says. “Being a traveller, the thought excited me, and what better reason to see the country and meet the local community? I’ve been to the Siwa Oasis, Sinai Peninsula, Western Desert, Aswan, Fayoum Oasis and El-Mahalla.”

She also partnered with Fair Trade Egypt. “I would travel to the source to see how the product was made and who was involved,” Linda explains. “Meaningful relationships were formed, and over time we’ve developed new ideas with them.”

Technology has improved communication and social customs have relaxed, so Linda no longer needs to modestly cover herself in native garb when she travels around Egypt.

Linda’s favourite site in Luxor is Karnak Temple. “I will walk through to the offering room, past those huge columns, and then on to the sanctuary of Sekhmet at the Temple of Ptah. It’s my place for grounding,” she says. So it’s fitting that she has helped to establish a workshop space in Karnak named Hands of Habiba, where the women are learning to become independent.

“For me, being a shop owner isn’t entirely about the money,” Linda says. “It’s about sharing the comments of our happy customers with the artisans. My life here has been about the women and the love and support that we give to each other. Living in Egypt is a simple life: buying local, living local and supporting local. The people make the experience — so friendly and always willing to give you their time.”

Her time in Luxor amongst the locals just might have influenced her, as we found Linda to be a delight. If you’re in this part of Egypt, be sure to stop into Habiba and purchase something (or some things) to take back with you, knowing that you’re helping empower Egyptian women. –Duke

“ My life here has been about the women and the love and support that we give to each other.

Living in Egypt is a simple life: buying local, living local and supporting local. The people make the experience — so friendly and always willing to give you their time. ”

Matilda of Scotland, Queen of England

by Susan Flantzer © Unofficial Royalty 2016

Matilda of Scotland, the first wife of King Henry I of England, was born around 1080 at Dunfermline in Scotland. Christened with the Anglo-Saxon name Edith, she was one of the eight children of King Malcolm III of Scotland and his second wife Saint Margaret of Scotland. At her christening were her godfather Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy, the eldest son of King William I of England (the Conqueror), and her godmother, Matilda of Flanders, the wife of King William I of England (the Conqueror). The infant Matilda pulled at Queen Matilda’s headdress, which was seen as an omen that the younger Matilda would be a queen one day. In fact, she would marry Queen Matilda’s son and Robert Curthose’s brother, King Henry I of England.

Matilda’s father is the Malcolm character in Shakespeare’s play Macbeth . Her mother Saint Margaret of Scotland was born an Anglo-Saxon princess. Margaret’s father was Edward the Exile (also called Edward Ætheling), the son of Edmund Ironside, King of the English, and had the best hereditary claim to the English throne during the reign of the childless Edward the Confessor. In 1057, Edward the Confessor, the childless King of England, discovered that his nephew Edward the Exile, believed to have been killed, was still alive and summoned him to England in 1057 as a potential successor. However, Edward died within two days of his arrival in England and the cause of his death has never been determined. Murder is a possibility, as he had many powerful enemies. His three children, Margaret, her brother Edgar the Ætheling, and her sister Cristina, were then raised in the court of Edward the Confessor, who died in January of 1066.

Saint Margaret of Scotland and King Malcolm III of Scotland depicted on a frieze by the Victorian painter William Hole Credit – Wikipedia

Following the death of Edward the Confessor’s successor Harold Godwinson, King of England at the Battle of Hastings, Margaret’s brother Edgar the Ætheling, who was the last of the Anglo-Saxon House of Wessex, was elected King of England. As William of Normandy’s (King William I of England the Conqueror) position grew stronger, it became evident to those in power that King Edgar should be abandoned and that they should submit to William. In 1068, Edgar, along with his mother Agatha and sisters Margaret and Cristina, fled to Northumbria. Supposedly, Agatha wanted to return to her native Hungary, but their ship was blown off course by a storm and they sought refuge from King Malcolm III of Scotland. Malcolm’s first wife Ingebjorg Finnsdotter died around 1069, and shortly thereafter he married Margaret. Margaret and Malcolm’s children had a strong genetic connection to the Anglo-Saxon kings. Bearing in mind that William the Conqueror’s new dynasty in England was not secure, Margaret and Malcolm gave four of their sons Anglo-Saxon royal names and named the other two sons after Alexander the Great and the biblical King David.

  • Edward, killed with his father in 1093 (after 1070 – after 1097), unmarried (c. 1074 – 1107), unmarried (c. 1078 – 1124), married Sybilla of Normandy, illegitimate child of King Henry I of England, no issue (1082 – 1116), married Eustace III of Boulogne, had issue including Matilda of Boulogne who married King Stephen of England (1083/1085 – 1153), married Matilda, Countess of Huntingdon, had issue

Matilda had three half-brothers from her father’s first marriage to Ingibiorg Finnsdottir.

At about the age of six, Matilda, then still called Edith, and her sister Mary were sent to be educated at Romsey Abbey in Hampshire, England where their maternal aunt Cristina was the Abbess. The girls also were educated for a time at Wilton Abbey in Wiltshire, England which had a connection to their ancestors from the House of Wessex. Both girls learned English, French, and some Latin, and were literate enough to read the Bible. As the daughter of the King of Scots, Matilda had a number of suitors including William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey, and Alan Rufus, 1st Lord of Richmond, and possibly even King William II Rufus of England.

On November 13, 1093, Matilda’s father King Malcolm III of Scotland and her eldest brother Edward were killed at the Battle of Alnwick. Malcolm was succeeded by his eldest son from his first marriage King Donald II of Scotland who was killed in battle in 1094. Thereafter, three brothers of Matilda succeeded to the Scottish throne. Weakened from her constant fasting and austere life, Matilda’s mother Margaret was already ill when her husband and eldest son went off to battle. She died at Dunfermline just three days after her husband and son’s death. Margaret was canonized a saint in 1250 by Pope Innocent IV.

Sometime in 1093, Matilda left Wilton Abbey. This is known because Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote to Osmund, Bishop of Salisbury ordering that Matilda should return to Wilton Abbey. The Archbishop of Canterbury mistakenly thought that Matilda had taken vows as a nun. There is no mention of Matilda in any chronicle from 1093-1100. Her whereabouts during that time period are unknown.

On August 2, 1100, King William II Rufus of England was killed in a hunting accident and his younger brother succeeded as King Henry I. Henry was about 32 years old and needed a bride, and his choice fell upon Matilda of Scotland, basically motivated for one reason. Through her mother, Matilda would merge the bloodline of the Anglo-Saxon kings with Henry’s Norman bloodline. However, Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury still had that problem thinking Matilda had taken vows as a nun, so he called a council of bishops to determine if Matilda and Henry could marry. Matilda testified that her parents had sent her to the abbeys to be educated and that she had never taken vows. Her aunt Cristina, Abbess of Romsey Abbey had insisted she wear a nun’s habit to protect her from unruly Norman lords and unwanted marriages. The council of bishops determined that Matilda had never been a nun and gave their permission for Matilda and King Henry I to marry. Matilda and Henry were married on November 11, 1100, at Westminster Abbey by Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury. Afterward, she was crowned with the Norman name Matilda in honor of Henry’s deceased mother Matilda of Flanders.

Statues of King Henry I and Matilda of Scotland from the west front of Rochester Cathedral Credit – Wikipedia

Matilda and Henry had four children, but only two survived childhood. Their son William Ætheling died on November 25, 1120, as he was returning to England from Normandy when his ship hit a submerged rock, capsized, and sank. William Ætheling and many others drowned. See Unofficial Royalty: The Sinking of the White Ship and How It Affected the English Succession. Henry was not faithful to Matilda. He holds the record for the British monarch with the most illegitimate children, 25 or so illegitimate children, but the tragedy of the White Ship left him with only one legitimate child, his daughter Matilda, known as Empress Matilda from her first marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Henry V.

Matilda and Henry’s children:

  • Euphemia (born July/August 1101), died young , known as Empress Matilda (1102 – 1167), married (1) Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, no issue married (2) Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou, had issue including King Henry II of England (1103 – 1120), married Matilda of Anjou, no issue
  • Elizabeth (born August/September 1104), died young

Matilda accompanied her husband in his travels throughout England and Normandy. She was a patron of music and poetry and commissioned a biography of her mother, The Life of Saint Margaret , attributed to Turgot of Durham. Influenced by her abbey upbringing and her mother Saint Margaret of Scotland, Matilda was pious and generous to the poor. She built a leper hospital at St. Giles-in-the-Fields in London and founded Holy Trinity Priory at Aldgate in London. Like her saintly mother, Matilda wore a hair shirt, walked barefoot during Lent, gave food and clothing to the poor, and washed the feet of lepers and poor people.

Matilda died when she was about the age of 38 on May 1, 1118, at the Palace of Westminster in London. The place of her burial is uncertain. One tradition says that she was buried at Winchester Cathedral in the old monastery and that around 1158 Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester had her remains placed in a mortuary chest which is now lost. Another tradition says Matilda was buried in Westminster Abbey at the entrance of the chapter house and then later reburied to the south of Edward the Confessor’s shrine by King Henry III.

After Matilda’s death, her husband King Henry I married Adeliza of Louvain, hoping for sons to prevent a succession crisis, but the marriage remained childless. On Christmas Day of 1226, King Henry I of England gathered his nobles at Westminster where they swore to recognize his daughter Empress Matilda and any future legitimate heir she might have as his successors. That plan did not work out. Henry died on December 1, 1135. Upon hearing of Henry’s death, Stephen of Blois, one of Henry’s nephews, quickly crossed the English Channel from France, seized power, and was crowned King of England on December 22, 1135. This started the terrible civil war between Stephen and Empress Matilda known as The Anarchy. England did not see peace for 18 years until Empress Matilda’s son acceded to the throne as King Henry II of England in 1153.

This article is the intellectual property of Unofficial Royalty and is NOT TO BE COPIED, EDITED, OR POSTED IN ANY FORM ON ANOTHER WEBSITE under any circumstances. It is permissible to use a link that directs to Unofficial Royalty.

England: House of Normandy Resources at Unofficial Royalty

Share this:


Land of the Nile: Ancient Egypt Cyprus Mediterranean Sea LEBANON Mendes PALESTINE Dead Sea Alexandria Sebeannytos TanisLIBYA Sais Tjel Naukratis Piramesse Daphnae Leotopolis LOWER Athribis Bubastis EGYPT Heliopolis Suez The Pyramids Cairo Memphis SINAISIWA Hierakleopolis WadiOASIS El-Hiba Maghara BAHARIYA EASTERN OASIS Ashmunein D E S E RT Akhetaten Beni Hasan FARAFRA OASIS Tell el-Amarna Deir el-Gebrawi WESTERN DESERT Assiut Athribis Wadi NileThinis R. Dendereh Hammamat Nile Abydos Koptos Naqada Valley of the Kings Thebes (Luxor) Red Sea Moalla Hierakonpolis El-Kab KHARGA Edfu Esna DAKHLA OASIS OASIS Kom Ombo Gebel Silsila UPPER Elephantine EGYPT Aswan 1st cataract Abu Simbel SALIMA 2nd cataract NUBIAN OASIS D E S E RT Southern Boundary of the Middle Kingdom N 3rd cataract0 150 Miles NUBIA 4th cataract 5th cataract0 150 Kilometers (KUSH) B AY U D A Important historic site R. D E S E RT Oasis Southern Boundary of the Old Kingdom

Encyclopedia ofancient egypt revised edition Margaret R. Bunson

Dedicated to the memory ofDr. Rafael Zamora of Aguadilla, Puerto RicoEncyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Revised EditionCopyright © 2002, 1991 Margaret R. BunsonAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized inany form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy-ing, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. For information contact: Facts On File, Inc.132 West 31st StreetNew York NY 10001Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataBunson, Margaret R.Encyclopedia of ancient Egypt / Margaret R. Bunson.—Rev. ed. p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 0-8160-4563-1 (hardcover)1. Egypt—Civilization—To 332 B.C.—Dictionaries.2. Egypt—Antiquities—Dictionaries. I. Title.DT58 .B96 2002932' .003—dc21 2002003550Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk quantities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Please call our Special Sales Department in New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755. You can find Facts On File on the World Wide Web at Text design by Joan Toro Cover design by Cathy Rincon Maps and genealogies by Dale Williams, Sholto Ainslie, and Patricia Meschino Printed in the United States of America VB FOF 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 This book is printed on acid-free paper.

CONTENTSList of Illustrations and Maps vi Acknowledgments ix Introduction x How to Use This Book xi Chronology of Major Events xiii Entries A to Z 1 Glossary 439 Suggested Readings 442 Index 449

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSAND MAPSPhotographs and Illustrations 5 6The mortuary temple of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel 7Reconstruction of the sun temple of Izi (Niuserré) at Abusir 11Temple remains from Seti I’s cenotaph at Abydos 22A tomb display of New Kingdom agriculture 26The ruins of Old Alexandria 32The warrior pharaoh Amenemhet III 48Amenhotep, Son of Hapu 49A statue of the Old Kingdom pyramid builder Khafré 52The canon of the human figure 54Monumental figures at Abu Simbel 60The massive temple columns, supports used at a shrine of Horus 65A silver denarius struck in honor of Octavian (Augustus) 72The bark of Amun, from a temple relief in Thebes 76An illustration of daily life from the Book of the Dead 82Byssus, the fine linen of Egypt 84A chariot design from a New Kingdom temple relief 87A relief depicting Cleopatra VII 88The Colossi of Memnon 90The Great Pyramid stands at Giza 96The crowns of Egypt’s kings 96Hatshepsut’s mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri 98A detail of Hatshepsut’s mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri 99The ruins of Deir el-Medina, the Valley of the Kings 128The opening to the shrine of Hathor at Dendereh 131Wall painting using pigments derived from Egypt’s natural resources 137The deities of the Elephantine and the first cataract of the NileWall paintings of Egyptian religious festivalsvi

List of Illustrations and Maps viiA relief of workers caging wild geese from the Nile marshes 140The watcher on the horizon, the Great Sphinx 147Renditions of the god Sobek and other deities 148A procession of divine beings at Abydos 149The opening to the temple of Isis at Philae 150A pantheon of divine beings in the White Chapel at Karnak 151The mythical creature saget, found on a tomb wall in Beni Hasan 152Columns honoring the goddess Hathor at Dendereh 159The Dendereh temple of the goddess Hathor 160Hatshepsut’s Karnak apartment 161Heh, the god of eternity 163Horus, the great deity of Egypt 172Hypostyle columns displayed in the temple of Luxor 176Columns leading to an interior chamber in the Isis Temple at Philae 184A Spirit Boat 188A nighttime image of the great temple complex at Karnak 193A section of the great religious complex at Thebes 195The Great Pyramid at Giza—Khufu’s monument 203Hieroglyphs, the writing of ancient Egyptians 210The great temple pylon gates of Luxor 218Medinet Habu, the migdol complex of Ramesses III at Thebes 232A relief depicting Ramesses II in battle array 245Tuthmosis III, one of the greatest warrior kings of Egypt 247Mummy wigs 254The golden mortuary mask of King Tut’ankhamun 256The monument honoring Queen Nefertari Merymut 269An obelisk of the New Kingdom 285A cenotaph temple honoring the deity Osiris and eternity 288An Osiride Pillar, a statue of Ramesses II 289The Persea Tree on a bas-relief from the Ramesseum 301A limestone relief of Amenhotep III in his war chariot 305The temple of Isis at Philae 306An engraving of Ptolemy I 314A portrait of Ptolemy II, called Philadelphus 315A pylon from the temple of Isis at Philae 319Passageway into the Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza 320The burial complex of Khafré (Chephren) at Giza 322Nefertiti, wife of Akhenaten 327Ramesses II depicted in a colossal statue in Luxor temple 335Ramesseum columns in the funerary monument of Ramesses II 339The complex at Saqqara of the Step Pyramid of Djoser 353Rendering of a sarcophagus in a tomb at Thebes 354A column from the White Chapel, built at Karnak by Senwosret I 363

viii List of Illustrations and Maps 364 368 An oil portrait of Senwosret III 369 The mummified head of Seti I 382 The shabtis in the burial chamber of King Tut’ankhamun 383 A relief depicting life on the Nile in the Middle Kingdom 389 Golden tableware from the Nineteenth Dynasty 398 The Step Pyramid at Saqqara 401 A temple kiosk at Philae in the Ptolemaic Period 403 Columned corridors dating to the New Kingdom 409 Luxor temple at Thebes 410 Tomb paintings depicting Ramesses II 410 A false door in a tomb from the Old Kingdom 417 A papyrus tomb text from the Book of the Dead 433 Tuthmosis III, the “Napoleon of Egypt” Khamerernebty, the consort of Menkauré of the Old Kingdom ii 23 Maps 74 97 Land of the Nile: Ancient Egypt 116 Alexandria 124 Plan of the fortress of Buhen 129 Temple complex at Deir el-Bahri 146 Geography of ancient Egypt 194 Egyptian Asiatic Empire under Tuthmosis III, 1450 B.C.E. 206 Natural resources of ancient Egypt 219 Layout of the Giza Plateau 314 Layout of the massive Karnak complex 400 Temple of Sobek and Heroeris (Horus) at Kom Ombo 423 Temple complex at Luxor Egypt under the Ptolemies, c. 250 B.C.E. Sacred sites in Egypt, c. 2600 B.C.E.–300 C.E. Valley of the Kings

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This revised edition of The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt was made possible and encouraged by Claudia Schaab of Facts On File. The work was greatly aided by Stephen M. Bunson, who is an inspiration. Thanks are also owed to several individuals for their generous assistance in the completion of this work. Among them are: Steve Beikirch Thierry Ailleret John Lavender of Historical Coins, Ltd. and Rosa DiSalvo of Hulton/Getty. ix

INTRODUCTIONWriting this encyclopedia and then revising and expand- ments, but the haunting beauty of the Egyptians them-ing the scope of this work has been a genuine pleasure selves can be found especially in the biographical entriesand privilege. The ancient Egyptians have fascinated cen- on royal and common individuals who spent their livesturies of human beings who have glimpsed or visited serving the land and the spiritual heritage of the Niletheir splendid ruins along the Nile. The words of these Valley. These individuals lived and died, laughed andancients ring with a profound knowledge concerning cried thousands of years ago, but they would prosper ifhuman aspirations and ideals. Such wisdom kept the transplanted into the modern world. They possessed aEgyptians vital and prospering for 3,000 years and profound sense of cooperation in labors, of appreciationbequeathed remarkable concepts to the generations to for the beauty of their homeland, and a unique awarenessfollow them. of the “other,” the presence of the spiritual aspects of human existence on the Nile. The hours spent research- The history of Egypt provides an overall view of the ing the ancient Egyptians have expanded my own hori-nation in good times and in bad. The entries on religion, zons, and I am grateful for the development, temples, the military, and art, amongothers, give details about specific eras and accomplish- x

HOW TO USE THIS BOOKThis revised Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt has been their prenomens (“first cartouche” or throne names)designed to increase historical information about the civi- given in parentheses.lization of the Nile Valley from the predynastic perioduntil the annexation of Egypt by the Romans around 30 Anyone wishing to begin learning about this periodB.C.E. During the 1,000 years following the collapse of the of ancient Egyptian history should read EGYPT, an entryRamessids and the New Kingdom in 1070 B.C.E. and the that provides geographical and historical material aboutRoman occupation of the Nile Valley, Egypt experienced the nation. The chronology provided at the front of thethe invasion of several foreign armies and the clash of book also gives information concerning Egypt’s develop-new people and ideas. The Libyans, Nubians, Assyrians, ment and relationship to other lands. If interested in aand Persians ruled the nation, and Alexander the Great particular subject, begin with that entry and then readbequeathed the lands and a new capital, Alexandria, to the cross-referenced entries concerning the same subjectthe Greeks, who remained in power during the Ptolemaic matter. For instance, if the reader is interested in thePeriod (304–30 B.C.E.). Eighteenth Dynasty and Tut’ankhamun, the section on historical periods under the entry on EGYPT will place Individuals from these cultures are included in this that royal line and that king in the proper chronologicalbook, as well as the military, social, and religious aspects and political setting. Tut’ankhamun is listed separately,of their presence on the Nile. Each culture arrived in and in the entry concerning his life one will discoverEgypt seeking its own purpose, eventually losing its grip other relatives or issues of significance to his reign.on the land. The native Egyptians, meanwhile, main-tained their own cultural imperatives and survived the If interested in the religious life of the ancientchanges in their world. Their temples, courts, monu- Egyptians, the reader can start with the entry on religionments, and deities continued to serve the land as foreign- and then read the cross-references to the gods and god-ers arrived and disappeared. The Chronology will provide desses, temples, priests, mortuary rituals, cosmogony, andan overview of these historical eras. eternity. Additional entries on the Per Ankh (House of Life), solar cult, barks of the gods, and cult centers will Specific topics are keyed to historical eras or de- offer further details and new avenues of exploration onsigned to provide details about particular customs, prac- the subject.tices, or traditions. Major subjects, such as agriculture,gods and goddesses, mortuary rituals, the military, pha- If the reader is interested in pyramids, the entry onraohs, queens, and religion, span the different dynasties that subject will lead to others, such as mastabas, sar-in order to offer an overview of the evolution of such cophagus, cartonnage (coffins), liturgy, the Judgmentmatters. Halls of Osiris, valley temples, and mummies (which are discussed in detail in the entry on mortuary rituals). Sites and personalities from the various eras areincluded, with reference to their importance or their role Once the book has become familiar to the reader, hein the development of the nation. The dates of these indi- or she can begin to explore unique aspects of Egyptianviduals are provided, and their Greek name is included in life that have survived over the centuries in the variousmany cases. In all instances the kings are recorded with art forms and in the stunning architecture found along the Nile. Individuals are included alongside customs or xi

xii How to Use This Book paintings, or statues) have been included, and maps pro- vide clarification of the geographic aspects of Egypt. Thetraditions so that the spirit of the various eras can come names of some rulers have been altered to follow newto life. Other entries on literature, art and architecture, trends in the field.astronomy, and women’s role will add details about thevarious aspects of day-to-day existence so many centuriesago. Photographs and art work (adaptations of reliefs,

CHRONOLOGY OF MAJOR EVENTSEgypt Near East and Mediterranean3000 B.C.E.–2700 B.C.E. Sumerian cities flourish Troy foundedNarmer captures Lower Egypt Towns in Syria and Palestine’Aha (Menes) founds Memphis Malta megaliths erectedIrrigation projects employed Minoans build on CreteWriting and calendar in use Gilgamesh at UrukRoyal tombs at Abydos and SaqqaraEgypt fully united Megaliths appear in Europe Royal graves used in Ur2600 B.C.E.–2100 B.C.E. Minoans open trade routes Ziggurat built at SumerStep Pyramid at SaqqaraPyramids at Giza Babylon a regional powerNubian lands dominated Greece occupiedCopper mines used in Sinai Stonehenge erectedHeliopolis powerful Ré center Sumer revitalizedPyramid Texts used Hammurabi in BabylonExpeditions sent to Punt Persian empire beginsPepi II reigns for almost a century Knossus on Crete becomes a vast cityCoffin Texts adopted Hittites destroy Babylon2000 B.C.E.–1600 B.C.E. Minoan civilization collapsesMontuhotep II unifies Egypt xiiiDeir el-Bahri becomes a shrineArt and architecture revivedTale of Sinuhe the Sailor introducedFaiyum restored with hydraulicsForts in Nubia built to the third cataractThe Wall of the Prince guards Egypt’s bordersHyksos begin incursions into EgyptKarnak formed as a shrineAvaris becomes Hyksos capital1500 B.C.E.–1300 B.C.E.Thebans oust HyksosTuthmosis I reaches Euphrates

xiv Chronology of Major Events CHRONOLOGY OF MAJOR EVENTS (continued)Egypt Near East and MediterraneanValley of the Kings started Mitanni people are ascendantKarnak embellished Myceneans establish citadelsDeir el-Bahri temples expanded Assyrians begin a recovery afterAkhenaten reigns at ’Amarna a time of declineThebes is the capital of Egypt1200 B.C.E.–1000 B.C.E. Babylon is restored after a time of decline Sea Peoples destroy the power of theRamessids regain lands lost in the ’Amarna Period Hittites The Iron Age commences in theAbu Simbel is opened MediterraneanPer-Ramesses becomes the capital of EgyptTreaty established with the HittitesThe Sea Peoples are defeatedThe Egyptian Empire is eroded by internal and external pressuresAmunite priests reach their ascendancyMedinet Habu is completed1000 B.C.E.–700 B.C.E. Phoenicians establish the city of Carthage Etruscans settle in the Italian PeninsulaThird Interim Period Assyria collapses as the major power in theEgypt is divided between Tanis and ThebesLibya assumes control of Egypt Tigris-Euphrates regionShoshenq I conducts campaigns Babylon regains its ancient power against the invaders The first Olympic Games are held in GreeceEgypt is splintered Homer writes the IliadNubians take control of part of Egypt under the leadership of PiankhiAssyrians assault the NileEgypt undergoes a cultural renaissance600 B.C.E.–300 B.C.E. Cyrus the Great of Persia conquers BabylonTrade and commerce revived under Saites The Persian capital of Persepolis is foundedThe Persian Empire conquers Egypt The first war between Greece and Persia isEgyptians briefly reclaim control foughtPersians reconquer Egypt Athens emerges as the chief political powerDarius I of Persia codifies laws for Egypt in GreeceThe last flowering of Egyptian art Philosophy and art flourish in Greece Rome begins its rise to power in the ItalianAlexander the Great enters Egypt during his campaign against the Persian Empire PeninsulaAlexandria is founded by Alexander Gauls sack Rome the Great Alexander the Great becomes king of Macedon and conquers the Persian Empire300 B.C.E.–30 B.C.E. Rome and Carthage fight the Punic Wars,Rise of the Ptolemaic dynasty leaving Rome master of the MediterraneanA leap year is added to the calendar Rome conquers GreeceManetho writes his history Pompey the Great campaigns in the East

Egypt Chronology of Major Events xvEratosthenes, Archimedes, and Euclid Near East and Mediterranean are in Egypt Rome conquers GaulThe Ptolemaic Empire begins its steady decline Julius Caesar defeats his rivals in the Roman Civil WarThe Rosetta Stone is erected Augustan Age begins with the birth of theCleopatra VII ascends the throne and Roman Empire begins the last reign of the PtolemiesJulius Caesar comes to AlexandriaAntony and Cleopatra are defeated at the Battle of ActiumEgypt falls to the legions of Octavian (Augustus)The end of the Ptolemaic dynasty and beginning of the Roman occupation of Egypt

The Golden Shrine of Queen Tiye: Reburial of a Rebel Ruler and His Mother - Part II - History

4670 Aryans create the Silk Road, immigrate to the Tarim bassin, China, where they are known as Tocharians.

The Tribe of Dan explores SarDINia as the Sher-dan, build the Monte d'Accoddi for animal sacrifice and the Giant's graves.
4600 Building of a necropolis in Varna, Bulgaria

Anunaki descendants (princely blood of Anu) reastablish a new kingdom at the Persian gulf and build the city Nippur, close to the 33d parallel (start of 'official' history where in the 'cradle of civilisation' a culture pops up with astrology, schools, advanced writing system, contract and trading system, calendar, transport with wheels, maps, sewer and irrigation system, music instruments, and legends about giants as first men).

After the rapture, the zodiac sign Taurus becomes a sign of the Beast from the earth: titans, elite men in rebellion against the Gods.

Gilgamesh, hybrid Annunaki/human rules Sumer, becomes the archetype of the Orion hero who beat the lion. Kingship is inherited through Quaïn/kinship, sky people who have royal, blue blood, red hair or reptilian features. Animals who also have blue blood with copper rich hemocyanin (the crab, snail, octopus, squid, spider and scorpion) are also considered aristocratic and divine, related to Venus, especially the snail and scorpion because they have shells showing the golden ratio.

Lucifer/Quain is the serpent god Enki (lord of underworld, of fresh water). He is depicted with his horned crown, bathing in the Abzu (watery deep) with 2 wavy water/snakes (energy, DNA) and upward swimming carp fishes. Abzu for them is where the sun/son rises, the fountain of youth, between the 2 mountains, the twin peaks where the ark landed (the concept of Holy water later found in all 3 monotheistic religions). Enki's consort is Nin-khursag, Lady of Life who birthed the first (white) earthlings. The ones who messed with human DNA are thus worshipped as the weavers of life, the cosmic Yoni/vulva. The priests wear fish suits and give the people opium from the poppy plant that pops open like a cosmic egg. Intelligence is linked to long ears (the same word gestù). Enki is accompanied by 2-faced Izimud (Mercury, binary star Sirius=Eannes, the 2 headed eagle, two faced Janus of January). Jupiter, the younger gods who caused the flood, is the storm god En-lil.

Cities are built around these pyramid/ziggurat temple complexes of stone baked stones, and a system of oppression is installed, a society build as a pyramid with the hybrid priests on top, as shepherds for the sheep, mediators between the human and the divine. The priests also control the food supply. They feed and care for the people and animals before they are sacrificed. They wear a Saturnian ring hat/headband, and a beard resembling the crescent moon/horn. The snake/DNA staff is the cane/Quain, the L or ?-shaped crook staff, that shepherds wear as the ox-goad to control the oxes and sheep by force.

They found 7 cities, so Sumer becomes the land of the 7 cities, associated with 7 demigods, the Abgal (depicted as half fish/ half human or bird headed). Sumerian mythology is based on South African legends, calls the reptilians the 'Annunaki', those who came from Anu, the sky. Being half reptilian, the priestkings must absorb nutrients and are annointed with oil, made from the fat from reptilians: the holy oil, called 'messeh', the annointed priestkings thus become Messiahs.

Negative 4D entities are called Ekimmu and Urukku, succubi and incubi linked to Lilith. She stands on 2 lions, Betelgeuse and Bellatrix, the shoulders of Orion. Stars are seen as pigs that suck milk from the milkyway cow godess. Lamashtu is another snake priest goddess, always depicted as suckling a pig and a whelp, holding snakes, standing on a donkey.

The Anunaki invent a gender based religion. The number of antropomorphic (half human/half animal) deities increases to more than 3600, based on the 360 degrees or angles (angels) on a circle. Tammuz is the sun at Sammur/Summer solstice, resurrected as an egg at eastern.

The same way Isis mourns the 90° pillar/phallus of Osiris, during the month Tammuz, when light is dimmed, the sun loses strength, Tammuz is wept by women as a physical entity during a 6 day imaginary funeral. Weeping women=young priestesses offering menstrual blood, the Beloved, the scarlet women, as it contains starfire, the nectar of the gods, the lifegiving extract of the lunar essence, the divine menstrual blood of the mother goddess, Scarlett woman. When this habit is restricted, their lifetimes shorten. Virgins are sacrificed at harvest, when sun moves into Virgo.

Enlil's symbol the plough is a metaphor for bull horns and virgins are seen as a furrow, an unplowed field. When the sun/Mars is in decline and moves from Virgo into Libra, the loin/hip part of the zodiac body, Saturn and the femine part of the cycle (comet Venus, the virgin, maiden) is on the rise. Than Isis and Venus is worshipped as Inanna, the morning star, the whore of Babylon, supposedly the lover of Tammuz, also standing on lions. Women are forced into sacred prostitution at her Gigunu temples, houses of nighttime pleasure, recreating the sacred Saturn-Venus, beast-beauty, snake-Eve ritual at festival of booths or tabernacles. Men visit the women for purification and salvation. The hybrid priests can rape women as they wish: they have sexual access to a woman, before the husband (the ritual defloration, the 'right of the first night' of the Lord, Saturn raping Venus). The red ribbon, knot of Isis, is the sign of marriage with Saturn. The sun god is thus betrayed by evil feminity and ends up in the underworld, Capricorn, death of the old, conception of the new. The 10 is the sign of completion, male, female, the 10th house of Capricorn.

When Inanna descends in the underworld with a torch, looking for the sun, she is Eresh-ki-gal, queen of the night/underworld (Irkalla), lifts her 7 veils. Sacrifice rituals with eating samanu and beets for laxative purging. Sagitarrius is ruled by Jupiter, the storm god. Os-triches are one of the birds that symbolize Osiris and the underworld, as they lay their eggs after winter solstice. Their eggs are painted, incised and put in graves as symbol of new life.

Sins are repented at the day of atonement during a period of fasting until the morning star reappears like a virgin, washed from sins, pure and white. Symbols of rebirth from the ashes are the cater-pillar turning into butterfly, the dove, the lion, the phoenix. Nimrod as a winged bull=the lord of winter and darkness as the bull of autumn/Taurus who receives his phosphor, his shennu rings and wings at spring equinox (Aquila, eagle). On the first 3 days of the first month of Nisan, during the Akitu new year festival when Venus, reappears between the horns of the bull of heaven, everybody has to give their cattle gifts, their taxes and sacrifice to the Lord. The priestkings march through the city as the new born son of New Year (Aries, the sheep ruled by Mars, sun of the sea Mare) parading with a para-sol or umbrella, protection from the reigning rain god Jupiter (later umbrellas get the obvious J shape).

They worship gods like Pazuzu to ward off the evil spirits. For the same reason protective winged lions with human face and ox feet (signifying the cardinal points) are placed to protect gates. The bulla stones are used as seals and given to people as clay balls to keep the tokens together, first money system.

Hermetically closed vases with acid, electrolyte juices, like blood are used as an El-ectric battery, charging iron rods (-, male) in copper sheaths (+, female). These iron rods become the mythical weapons of the gods, the iron spear or sword. Natron and ash is used to make lye (soda) to cleanse clothes.

To help the hybrids maintain the human form, the Syrians advise to feed them more human hormones and blood in the form of an altered animal. They breed new animals from mixing DNA from the wild bore and human DNA: pigs. They domesticate them and slaughter them to produce pork (Ham, the son of Noa is also the salted, crooked hind leg of the swine). Like reptilians bred humans to domesticate them, to kill them and eat them, they teach humans to breed animals to domesticate, kill and eat them. People start eating meat and drink malt beer, leading to more spiritual degeneration.

Because of the large cultural exchange with the Semitic Akkadian region (Syria), every Sumerian deity has an Akkadian counterpart. In Akkadia 2 goats are chosen and lots are drawn for them. One is liberated, the other representing evil capricorn is draped with silver necklaces and cast out on the day of the King's wedding (Yom Kippur) as animals who carried the evil spirit of Oz/Azazel (the dark aspect of Saturn), dismembered or thrown of the red cliff (hence the term black sheep and 'scapegoat'). The 11th month, when the rivers are at its heighth, ruled by Uranus and Saturn, they remember the deluge as the zodiac sign Ramman, the Aquarius storm god, lord of the canals, pouring water with wavy MMM-sign. They call Aires shapparu, the wild goat, the horn that gave the air, the breath of life. The ram horns are also a metaphor for the uterus. The Semites don't eat pork, because they know it is a form of cannibalism. They worship the Evil Eye, the star Fomalhaut as half man/half fish god Dagon (dgn meaning also grain), Saturn as El or Ilu.

In Sumer Enlil and his sons order the building of a new city, Uruk (Erech) with ziggurats for sacrife, well irrigated by an elaborate canal system. As part of the moon cult of Inanna/lshtar,queen of the night, goddess of fertility a kakum, a red temple is built, next to the district dedicated to Anu. At the kakum all the wheat reserves are kept. All farmers are given coins for their wheat as first mo(o)ney (gold - the sun, silver - the moon, bronze for wheat), with Ishtar on it. The coins are than used as payment for the whores of Babylon, sacred prostitution at the temple, where priestesses in trance serve as oracles and women have to have sex with a stranger in the temple, at least once. Use of warka vases to sprinkle earthmilk, electrified water ('sweet waters'), depicting ox and sheep.
3600 In Malta the Phoenicia giants build neolithic complexes like Hagar qim, the Ggiantja, a temple and 'tower of the giants' for animal sacrifice and a cave/underground temple as a necropolis for 7000 people. It contains trilithons, snakepits and an oracle room for brainwave entrainment with ceiling serving as a wave guide, causing echos, felt throughout the body. It has a strong acoustic resonance of 70 Hz, the frequency of 4D astral projection and 114 Hz, a frequency that makes the brain shift from left to right dominance. The site is build like a beehive, as one of the last matriarchal societies, worshipping the queen bee. Bronze Age people live in a matriarchal society, the dead are buried in breast like tombs, to return to the womb of mother earth (sidhes).

In the Indus Valley there is continuous wars against neighboring city-states for the purpose of taking captives for sacrifice to the gods, as divinely-sanctioned holy war.

Druïds, 'men of the oak trees' in Germany develop culture with ornaments of gold and amber (barnstein). Like the Sumerians/Babylonians, they perform rituals at Bel-thane on May 1st, May Day, like the burning of children in the belly of a huge wicker effigy of a man.

In Canaan, at the location now known as Beth-lehem, a fertility temple is built (Virgo as Beit Lachama, the house of bread/food, the granary) with a shrine for Tammuz, because it has a good water supply. At the Black Sea Phoenicians build the Scythian empire (scythe=the sickle of Saturn). It is a common practice amongst the reptilian/Nephilim kings to slay their father to gain power, like Saturn slaying Uranus and the story of Set castrating Osiris, throwing the fallus in the water. In Phoenicia the Canaanite ruler Cronus builds the city Gubal (origin of El, later Byblos). In the 32d year of his reign he castrates and kills his father Autochthon, deifies himself. The Phoenicians conquer the forest of Enlil with its cedars so Phoenicia (modern Libanon) is known for its cedar trees, also a symbolic victory/castration of their earlier gods.

2600 The Northern Atlanteans migrate to Egypt, build over 120 pyramids in Egypt, meaning 'fire in the middle', as an earthly representation of constellations, with the Nile representing the milkyway. The 3 pyramids of Gizeh are built aligned with the 3 stars of Orion's belt (worshipped as Osiris), near the bull of Taurus and the North star (first Egyptian pyramid is called the North pyramid).
A-nu, the city of the Black Sun (later called Heliopolis by the Greeks) is built on the east of the Nile in the 13th nome of Egypt. They worship the sun in the form of obelisks, as sun dials, as a phallus of the sun god. Khem is the word for black, the color of the fertile khem-trails of the Nile and the black bull. As a remnant of the Atlantean solar religion, the Aryan goddess (h)Arya becomes Har/Horus, the pineal as the eye of Horus.

The optic thalamus, that acts as a relay station for the pineal is worshipped as the scarab beetle Khepri.

The first season is Akhet, the opening of the gates of the underworld. The Nile is flooded symbolically by the tears of Isis, caused by Osiris' death (july-oct). Mummification rituals, passion plays and processions re-enact the death and rebirth story of Osiris. Rituals climax in the eucharist, eating of their god.

Another legend of how Enki/Lucifer created mankind is the goat horned Knum or Gnoum, who made men, the human DNA-Genome from its nut/potter wheel, the celestial north pole. The knowledge about after sexual abstinence of 40 days to ascend, to make Holy Bread is spread in the city Khmun (later called Hermopolis).

2200 In Egypt the priests as descendants from Lucifer, the goat Djedet/Mendes, found the Court of the Dragon, using the rose cross and the goat of Mendes as their symbol. Queen Sobeknefru of the 12th dynasty opens her mystery school to the Phoenician/Scythian kings . As these kings annoint themselves with the fat of reptiles, of the Dragon, the sacred crocodile, they are referred to the Great Dragon or King of kings (Messiah, the annointed one). Amenemhat 2 puts a statue of his face on the sphinx of Anubis.
2100 In regions like Nepal the Veda's take form (the sacred oil is called Soma) and in Sumer, the Sumerian tablets: The Epic of Gilgamesh.. Fall of Sumerian civilisation, the royal AbRaham bloodlines move to Haran, according to legend, Enlil and the other Annunaki depart.
2000 Crete/ Mycenae becomes dominant city in South Greece with the reocurring Lion's gate. Phoenicians (mythical red haired Cadmus, prince of the city Tyre found another city of Thebes in Greece and introduce the Phoenician alphabet to the Greeks. The ritual union of Saturn-Venus at the Holy Mountain, with their Creta Ropa (clothes of creation, naked) =>the myth of Enlil/ Zeus who abducts Eu-ropa, the Phoenician woman with a broad round face with pronounced chin like the broad faced cow goddess Hathor.

In Chaldea and Persia ancient Zurvanism, based on a neutral God revives as teachings of Zoroaster/Zarathustra, about the Nordics as white spirits, Ahura Mazda. Their caste of priest/astrologers are called Magi. Gods of rebirth, like Mithra have an ouroboros as a halo, a ring around their waiste or a circle around their body.

Silk, made by arachnids, moths, mayflies, beetles becomes popular as the product of Saturn, symbolic of weaving DNA snakes. The trade leads to the Sillk Road, similar to the road the Wanderers followed before the flood.

Building of the Shensi pyramids in China, also mirroring Orion (the Silver Gate).

1800 In Babylon, Hammurabi receives his code of law from Marduk. He builds a ziggurat as high as a skyscraper. As a continuation of the Orion-Sirius war he conquers Mari (Syria) and the Babylonian empire.

The Nephilim (Canaanites, Hebrews and Philistine/Palestines) worship Isis the mother goddess as Astarte. As the hybrid shepherd kings (Hyk-sos), the blonde nordics like Yuya and his wife Tjuyu/Thuya and their children Ay and Tiye gain more influence as military noblemen on the Egyptian royal court, as vizier or cup-bearer, meaning a private scorcerer/shaman, initiated in Iunu/Heliopolis. Trade with the region now known as Denmark makes the eilte wear the same beads in their ears. They fight with bows and horse-drawn war chariots. Women of the 'divine' bloodlines wear blue headdress around their elongated skulls, linked to Tefnut. Because of the reptilian hybridisation diseases occur like leprosy and specific traits like gouging eyes and a stiff upper lip.

In the rest of Africa the same religion is practised as a mask wearing medicine man/priest class practicing Voodoo.

The Hittites worship stones as Huwasi stones, give them food and water, wash and annoint them. They call Isis/Inanna Hannahanna, the grandmother. Lucifer, the embodiment of golden crops=Telipinu, worshipped every 9 years with 1000 sheep and 50 oxen as an oaktree.
1500 The 'blow of Thera', the eruption of the vulcan Thera, meteors, comets and their parasites destroy most Minoan cities and Minoan civilisation. Around the Mediteranean Sea, the red haired Venus worshipping sea-faring Phoenic-ians (from Phoinos, the red ones) or Canaanites develop a civilisation of trade routes and city states like Tyre, Byblos and Sidon (Sidonia on Mars). They have the owl and the eagle as symbol. Within these Canaanite societies the religion of Isis-Ra-El, Israel emerges. A Druïd of the temple= a jew, Juda, judge. They also spread their alphabet to the different cultures (the bull sign of taurus turns into A, in Hebrew the aleph, Bet:house). The Phoenician priests establish a production facility in Marocco to harvest sea snails so they can be used to dye the clothes of the priests with Tyrian purple, indigo or turquose. They worship and sacrifice children to the dying and rising storm god Baal. Mystery teachings about DMT and the acacia tree of life/coffin of Osiris from Egypt reach Phoenicia with cities like Tyre who become known for producing purple clothing, myth of purple phoenix heron bird.
1457 Battle at mount Megiddo (biblical Armageddon) at 33d parallel, confrontation between Egypt and Canaanite serpent worshipping vasal states. At the temple of Har Meggido, huge amounts of bones are kept of ritual sacrifice.
1400 The Annunaki bloodlines rule Anatolia (Turkey) as the Hittite empire from their capital Hattusa with sphinxes and lion's gate.Through Hurrian and Hittite culture, Persian monotheïsm of Zoroaster, spreads to Egypt as Atenism.

The Egyptian pharao Thut-moses the 3d (child of Toth, King David supposedly reigned 33 years) as an active conqueror, transforms Egypt into a superpower. He defeats the Tribe of Dan, the Set worshiping Sumerian shepherd kings, the Hyksos invaders (kills Goliath with his Rock).The order of the serpent Zadokite priest class, Zionists and the Egyptian Dragon court becomes the House of Judea (with the Merkaba, star of David, Enki's wormhole, created by union of male and female energy, 666). He knows the priests of Amun are becoming too powerful. He pretends to be part of their religion but supports the mystery school Order of the Rose Cross and supports the Aten priests of Iannu, loyal to the throne. The initiates are called therapuetae, physicians of the soul. They develop techniques like sungazing and meditating with healing rods, copper and zinc tubes, containing hardened coal and magnetite. The symbol of the upright, centered red cross in a circle, the mark of Quaïn=the Rose Cross.

His son Amenhotep 2, whose mummy is still intact, has red hair and reptilian scales under his skin. His son Amenhotep 3 also has knowledge of the Qaballa, is an alchemist and summons demons as necromancer. King Sol-omon= the spirit of sun and moon, universal Illumination in hieros gamos, sexual union. The dome, temple, union of Solomon, Hieron Solomon => Jerusalem, built on 7 hills (shalom:peace, P from sacrifice, tearing people to pieces), built according sun/moon proportions. Mind control through sodomy, sending an electrical signal, a vasovagal shot that breaks up the brainstem, causing seizure, and white flashes of light in the brain= the Key of Solomon.

Amenhotep sends his daughters to Phoenicia to gain influence. The Nephilim build Palmyra and the temple of Enlil/Jupiter at Baalbek ( the Lord of the source river, another Heliopolis) for them, on a stone structure of 3 monoliths of Mount Hermon.

1394 In his palace, his wife Queen Tiyee (=linked to queen Sheba, queen of seven-the morning star), a red haired black woman with elongated skull, connected to the bloodline of the Nordic Yuya , gives birth to Akhuen-Aton (='Golden eye', =Moses, =Menelik). His mother favors him but he is ignored by the rest of his family because he is an androgynous bastard child, a hybrid with black skin, natural black lined almond eyes, less dense bone structure, larger brain size. Moses=from the sea, crocodile shaped boat, reptilian Nephilim descent. He moves to Anu/Heliopolis, for his education under the supervision of snake priests of the black sun Aten (Saturn, a circle within a circle). Because of his unusual wide hips, he sees himself as a life-giver.
1352 After the death of Tuthmose, his big brother, at the peak of Egypt's imperial glory, his mother lets him ascend the throne. As a pharao, he tries to restore the original Atlantean/Egyptian religion, to convert the Egyptians from the fear-based polytheïsm of idols, sacrifice and magic amulets of Amun back to a single controlling intelligence, represented by a sun disk. The Ankh, gift of the life giving sun, phi 1.619 =>4 letter word YHVH, Yahweh, representing the 4 realms, 4 elements with spirit as something too holy to pronounce. He rides in a chariot of electrum/amber.
1346 After his vision about the Aten between 2 mountains, he builds the city Amarna as one big sun gate to worship Aten, hermaphrodite with a fallus/lingam and a vulva/yoni, between Cairo and Luxor. Sungazing is a daily morning ritual. Aten=> Day of atonement.

The priests dispise him for teaching that they are no longer needed. After the death of his mother, Moses becomes tyrannical. He orders his army to disband the priesthood and deface their idols. He becomes involved with the Levites, (levitators) a sect of monks. They preach to the Habiru (Hebrew), an unpopular nomadic people of low class mercenaries, raiders and thiefs from the North. They incite war and massacre of races, invent rules and regulations, teach the 'promised land of milk and honey' is something to be taken literal. They worship the moon as Yam and Jupiter the storm god as Indra. Atenism becomes a patriarchal faith.

Horemheb, Ramses 1 and Seti plan a military coup against him. To prevent civil war, he abdicates the throne to his son Tutanchaten who changes his name into Tutanchamun and restores the old religion.
The pyramids combine male - and female+ energy, the sun and moon (Mount Horeb, glowing heat of Horus and Mount Sinai, mountain of the moon). He writes down the Ten Commandments (=Spell 125 in the Egyptian Book of the Dead). The Levites write the Torah (words of the thunder god Thor). Hymn to Aten= psalm 104. The knowledge about Holy Breath process of abstince to create the Holy Bread is passed on (metaphor of Elijah who travels 40 days and 40 nights to the cave of Mount Horeb, 'mountain of the sun'). Lunar cult of the Moon =>Monotheïsm. Mount Sinai=Hagar who gave birth to Ishmael.

The melting of the Golden Calf is the symbolic end of the age of Taurus, beginning of the Age of Aries. Because the horned ram Aries is the constellation where the sun is reborn, the high priests call themselves AbRAham/Ibrahim, people from the ram. The priests of Jupiter( Zadok/Sydyk) are called Melchi-zedek. Sara-Abraham= metaphor for the Sahara desert, moon-sun and the cere-brum, part of the brain with the higher mind. They create propaganda to promote the sacrifice of rams and first born children at BayRAMs (Abraham, asked to sacrifice his son at Mount Moriah after 70 days of RAMadan). They make a distinction in their propaganda between the brothers Lucifer/Enki as the lord and the 'lofty mountain' of Jupiter/Enlil as the angry, punishing god of Jehova. The Aryans who see themselves as Ari, the lion, the light of God, connected to Aries= the angel Ari-el.

After 25 years Akhenaton returns to claim the throne. Ramses and Seti still own the army and he must flee.

1336 The followers of Akhenaton, the Habiru/Hebrew, led by the patriarchal Atenists become the Is-ra-elites of the bible, practising Judaism (worshipping Jew-Piter). They are chased by Seti during the 19th Dynasty, and they take with them a red haired caricature of Set as their 'Satan'. The knowledge is passed on as hermetic literature ('the Ark is hidden in a cave under the mountain Nebo', Mercury). A legend is created where Horus (as Akhenaton) fights a battle on top of Mount Nebo, his eye is damaged and killed.
The alchemical marriage in the human body between sun and moon is symbolised by the temple of Hierosalima-Jerusalim, the sigilum solomonis, the Saturnian Star of David. The temple of Solomon, based on the Tree of Life, has an entrance of 2 pillars, white and black, Isis and Nephtys. Freemasons of the Dragon court with access to the knowledge call themselves Templars. Frustrated because he lost his kingdom, Akhenaton wants to reconquer the world, dreams of a new world empire.
Akhenaton (=Menelik) creates the bloodline of the beta Israel.

More sacrifice with flint knives and further research on human mind control (Book of the Dead), how to torture somebody from a young age to honeycomb, compertmentalize the mind and program alters, creating bloodgroups like Rhe-, for efficiant hive mind control. Use of hypnotism, sodomy, drugs and electric shocks to create bloodlines of multigenerational abuse with special abilities, by trauma based mind control (even myths describe how Horus is raped by Set). Slaves are punished by lashing or stabbing them in the back, where all the nerves meet. Women who commit adultary have their noses cut off to ruin their looks, men caught in adultary receive beatings, men caught raping a freeborn woman are castrated. Candidates for mystery schools are led to 3 rooms, in the last chamber they are exposed to extreme fear and danger, like fighting a wild animal.

Akhenaton produces offspring with his niece Nefertiti and with his mother Tiye. One of the children of Akhenaton and another of his sisters and wives is Tut-ankh-amon.

The kundalini energy is represented by 2 cobras that radiate, the uraeus. Pharaos, the light of god wear the same cobra headdress and a phallic beard of goat hair.. He restores the Amon-Ra religion but is murdered. His grave also contains a ceremonial dagger of meteorite and leaves of the sacred olive tree, source of P and oil for lamps.

The Persian word for adversary is 'shaitan'. The dualistic thinking Essene sect, a branch of the Rosicrucian order consider every adversary or heretic to their sect as as a Shaitan/Satan, a scapegoat for all evil. A Min also becomes a heretic, non jew (jew-piter worshipper). The Cohens (serpent priests), the jews who have the juice, who deliver the 'Holy oil' of reptilian fat and handle the ark, have 12 stones in their breastplate, 12 hours=> the 12 tribes. 12 leaves of showbread with manna are served on a special acacia table for the priests, as the body of their god. Their candles in the temple: 7 pleiades, home of the lord. They circumsize on the 8th day, nr of Saturn. An ark is used as a place of sacrifice to their god. These sacrifices of bull, sheep and goats are taken care of by the first priests. Also dancing rituals are performed with sistrums (4 rattling bars, representing the 4 elements), involving alcohol (because it lowers their vibration, slows down the brain so people only use the primitive features of the reptilian brain).

Hiram king of Tyre at the 33d parallel, who helped the templars is worshipped as the new Horus. They perform the holy kiss, the sacred Saturn-Venus prostitution as Succoth-Benoth in a box-like booth/tabernacle with goat hair curtains on the Mount of Olives. Waving the 4 species=weaving DNA with the 4 building blocks. Etrog:the breast/womb, lulav:penus and 2 testicles, the 3-fold grain Virgo holds in her hand. Like the Egyptians they build their cities, based on the tree of life, with the Jordan as spine/milkyway.

During the slow period of the ecliptic, to prepare for the spring festival, they eat beans (lent-lentils-printemps). As a heliotropic (sun-turning) vine plant it is a symbol of the testicles, the DNA seeds of the penis, Pea's of Lucifer.

According to Scottish legends, Meritaten (blood provider of Aten), the long headed daughter of Akhenaton, also known as Scota, her Scythian husband, their son Goidel Glas and their people flee from Egypt. Akhenaton's vizier (the mythical Joseph or Bar-nabas) becomes the new embodiment of Lucifer, the antichrist rebel who stole the fire from the Gods. The strange features of the Atlantean Akhenaton bloodline (long spider like fingers, long limbs, sunken chest, larger pelvis, cleft palate- baring upper teeth like Ammun, epilepsy-the holy disease)=Marfan syndrome. Pharaos like Siptah have another holy disease, cerebral palsy: being born to early through caesar section (Saturn is the Caesar, the harvester), stiff muscles, having seizures.

Akhuenaton, the sun=Hi-Ram Abiff, the son of a black widow. With his scorpion fingers and hook sceptre he represents the Scorpio who stung Orion. He also is the archetype of the new Horus, with one eye poked out. Jews wear the Saturnian cube on their head as a Tefillin. Sea peoples like the Tribe of Dan attack and raid Egypt.

1274 Battle of Qadesh (Isis) in Syria between the Egyptian and Hittite empire.
1259 Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty between Seti's son, the red haired Nordic pharaoh Rameses 2, and Hittite King Hattuseli 3. The high priests of Amun at Thebes become hereditary monarchs, the real governors of Upper Egypt, owning all the temple lands and ships. Rameses 3 sacrifices more than 400.000 live stock in the temple of Amun at Karnak. Castor oil is so essential for the Egyptians, they are paid partly in oil and strike breaks out when they are denied oil. Oil and fat is used to make cream, pomades and perfumes, shaped into balls or cones. Many Egyptians shave their hair (wax, like the moon) and wear wigs of braided hair mixed with beeswax and resin, attached to a net. In 1200, the Hittite empire falls.

In the region where their giant ancestors lived, Berbers and Phoenicians found Leptis Magna (Lybia) at a river providing freshwater from inner earth.
Scota and her people conquer Brittain and Ireland from the Tuatha de Dana. They are known as the Scottish. Their son Goidel Glas= Herakles, the Tor/tower of Glastonbury, the town Glasgow. The benben stone=>the Stone of Destiny. Aryans pass through the Caucasus (become Caucasians) spread to Northern Europe. The axis of imperial power shifts north.

They have mythical stories about the Argonauts who travelled north, to the region now known as Svalbard/Spitsbergen at the North pole, the Hyperborea of their Atlantean ancestors, parallel with the Amber Road, where there is no sunset in summer. The northpole becomes Arctica,with its white (k)nights of midnight sun, the mythical Black Sun.

Archon=arctos (greek for 'bear'). The celestial northpole what the Babylonians saw as a bear Dabu becomes the 2 bears, Grosse Bar/ bear of Ursa Major and Minor, who can bear the cold of the north. Ursa Major =Helice, the top of the helix, the well, the lotus, the revolving vulva. She chases Ursa minor=Melissa, the cub, the honey bee. The bear is a codeword of the pedophilic elite with hive mind as honey-eaters abusing mind controlled minors as honey-bees. The longitudinal lines, degrees in a circle: the ark-angles. Black nobility, the Bar-ons. Their ship is the southern constellation of Argo Navis, following the milky way river to the north. The mythical Thule=Dul Quarnayn, the 2 inner horns of the torsion field of the earth, entrances to inner earth at the north and south pole.

On Samhain (the original Haloween) the druïds impale victims on stakes, perform incest, drink blood, practice cannibalism, sacrifice children and animals. They dress up as owls or other animals to invite and become demons, to celebrate death.

The semi-nomadic red haired people in Russia, now known as Udmurt (the meadow people), continue the practices of the Atlantean sorcerers as Siberian shamanism, consuming mushrooms, during winter solstice festivals, wearing reindeer headdresses. The Aryans in Cappadoccia (modern Turkey) build the Derinkuyu underground city .

2600-300 The black Nubians from Caucus range build the Kingdom of Cush and also build pyramids with H-shaped entrance (symbolising stargate).

700 In Egypt during a period of chaos the Osirian priests of the 25th Dynasty persecute the original Priesthood of Set. Seth has evolved into the Egyptian God of Chaos and destruction, the manifestation of Apep or monstruous Typhon, son of Tartarus, with a serpent's body. He has an ass's head, the elongated snout of the ibis and long ears or is a headless demon with eyes placed in his shoulders and a skull or a merkaba instead of a penis, the Akephalos, the principle of all which burns, consumes with red hair, representing the Phoenicians of the desert.

The king Shabaka and his Nubians move north, settle in Memphis. He puts his stone at the temple of Enki/Ptah, connecting himself with King Menes who founded Memphis but he cannot stop the decay of Egypt, when it is sacked under Assyrian (gang of Enlil) occupation. They spread African religion of Lucifer (Min, Papa Legba with his large phallus, the rainbow serpent Dan or Damballuh as the androgynous child of the creator goddess Mawu) to Greece.

In the region of Phocis, on the 2 faultlines of Mount Parnassus they become known as Delphos, found Delphi (the brothers, from delphys 'womb, matrix', yin and yang, the 2 fishes or dolphins). Another meteorite Atum/Ohm-phallus stone is worshipped as Zeus Baetylos, marking the new navel of the earth, shaped like a pinecone beehive, covered by a woven net with beehive/hexagonal letuce pattern as gift of the sea, with 2 eagles on top of it. The stone is said to be spit out by Saturn (Kronos) and used by Zeus to kill the evil, female underworld snake Pytha, of inner earth (like Marduk killed the dragon Tiamat). The killing is re-enacted every 8 years by a boy setting a hut, the dragon's house on fire. The vulcano Mount Bel (now mount Etna) on the island Sic(k)ilia is supposedly the place where Zeus castrated Saturn with his sickle and hid the penis/snake. Sicilia has a river that provides the magic Agate stones, of cryptocrystalline silica. Later Pytha is seen as the male Python.

The Egyptian black magic rituals with young virgin priests and priestesses as oracles of Amon continue. Young women are selected to serve as the serpent priestess Pythia: on the 7th day after a new moon, a psychic woman sits at the apex of a tripod seat above the omphalos stone, the Holy of Holies. As a sacrificial altar it absorbs the negative energy, creates an implosive vortex (typhon). Through black magic and breathing hallucinogenic ethylene fumes (methane and ethylene), that spring from the underground, symbol of the earth's vulva, of the decomposing body of the Py-tha/Python, she receives messages in a shamanistic trance from 4D entities.

In Dodona the snake priestesses also serve as oracle in sacred oak rituals with copper cauldrons (eikanus:cock/oak). They are called cybeles, Peleiades or the Peleia Melaina, the black doves, after the carrier-pigeons are used to communicate between Dodona, Thebes and other oracles. They form a network of Thebes, Bedhet, Suwa, Dodona that corresponds to the stars of constellation Argo (Dodona has the same latitude as Mt Ararat , which was the mountain the Hebrews claim the ark landed) . The dove becomes a symbol of messenger Mercury, of the Holy Spirit, the Pleiades the 7 stars near Aries. The human body corresponds to the 12 zodiac signs, the pleiades are in the top of the head region, the higher mind, the philosopher's stone. The Cybele mother godess also has a transgender eunuch priesthood. On certain days they ingest black hembane and mount an annointed hallucinogen-laced wooden staff in their vagina (the famous broomstick witches ride on).

They develop stories about their ancestors, the legend of king Danaus in the epic Danaïdes, Quadmus (qdm, from the east) who slayed the dragon, his people who came from dragon's teeth (the stones in Brittain). In Lacedaemonia/ Macedonia black magic rituals are held at Mount Athos, the holy mountain, dedicated to the Gigante Athos, their ancestors.

700-600 Worshippers of Saturn give the epiteth Ba'al, the Lord of Enki to Saturn and sacrifice children to Ba'al at Gehenna, vally of Hinnom, surrounding Jerusalems Old City. A fire is kept burning almost perpetually to consume the cadavers, to create new phosphorus. From than on the place is cursed -later referred to as Hades (Greek), Hell (Christianity) and Jahannam (islam). This place of worship of death, Mors is Mount Moriah, mount of the olive tree (the future Jerusalem).
641-609 Josiah, the new king of Judah destroys the altar of Bethel.
600 In China the El-bloodline of the Li's is preserved. 1st camera obscura is developed.

The Tribe of Dan (Aeolians from Thessaly, the black sea) moves from Asia minor to a region they call Lacedaemon, the spirit Ammon of Lace, the axe, the lake. Sparta, Greece, known as the Danaos, Yçbardans, the sown men. Young boys are pitted against each other in the Kryptea for a death match/cock fight. As the beginning of a young man’s military career, they have to start an officially sanctioned sexual relationship with an older man before becoming adults.

Origin of the legend of the red haired Menelaus and Helena (Selena, the moon) as a new version of the gnostic creation story. The story of the abduction of Helene, is the conquering of the moon (helix coming from the turning wheel=Troy). The moon cult of Helena is centered in Laconia around plane trees. They wear red plumes on their helmets as roosters of golden dawn and the lambda phallus symbol on their shield. As kings of the earth, they were supposedly born from the river Euro-tas, the moldy clay river, as amber tears falling from the cosmic tree, the celestial northpole turning point. Lucifer/venus, the morning star, orange sun in the garden of the Persian gulf (Paradis)=the golden apple from Isis/Paris from Troy. Paradise is the 6 monts of light that castrates the old sun Achilles. 40 days of abstinence=40 warriors in the horse of Troy, hippo metaphor for the phallus, the walls of Troy metaphor for vulva. Apsu/Poseidon who sends 2 serpents to kill Laocoon=the 2 serpents of Abraxas, the black sun,the 2 dioscouros horsemen Castor and Pollux.

606-536 The Sumerians build Babylon (Babilani, gateway of the gods), the central city with a river called 'belly button river' on the 33d parallel, tropic of capricorn, ruled by Saturn. The city Tuba (horn), named after the star Tuban, at that time the pole star, between the Big and small dipper, the tail of the constellation Draco. They give Venus, the whore of Babylon, the nick-name Melitta. On friday, ruled by Venus, the worship of Saturn as Shabbatai, begins as the Sabbath. The moon is worshipped as Nanna (the banana in the sky)/Sin, with Babylon as Sin City.The God of thunder Terah/Kvara is worshipped in temples like the House of Tammuz (Adonis) where people stay for 28 days, slaughter sheep, eat and drink food with mushrooms, mourning in the house of Dilbat (Venus/Lucifer).

The Babylonians worship Mars as the son of the storm god Teshub, as the warlike Marduk, in myths the son of Enki, with the evil eye of Ra. Marduk eclipses the cult of Enlil, becomes the main deity of death worship in Babylon and Egypt as Ra. Saturn/Satan has many epiteths: Baal-Hermon, Baal-Zebub (lord of the flies, found during decompisition), Baal-Zephon (lord of the northern wind/void) and Meri-Baal (lord of rebellion). Marduk's temple is called Esiglia. The Cohen/Khan priest of Baal partake in the sacrifice, become canni-bals.

Writing of the 7 tablets of the creation myth Enuma Elish. The Atenist priests, captive in Babylon have access to the story of the flood and write the Hebrew Bible with Genesis of 7 days. Adamu means 'from earth' . Lucifer/Enki as Nin-khursag, Lady of Life who birthed the first earthlings, is named Awa (life, Eve, Ev-il created life, darkness created light) in the bible. More repression of femnine energy. Funnel chest is a symptom of Marfan syndrome. Ti of her other title Nin-ti, the longer pronunciated ti, meaning rib =made from Adam's rib, Evening similar to Atumn, Even numbers (2) are made from Odd numbers (1). Akhenaton's black mother is connected to Venus, queen of Sheba and to Saturn to the black Lapis Exilis as black (evil) but beautiful and intriguing, on her throne in the constellation of Casseopia.

Another character symbolizing Lucifer/Eve/Venus, the whore of Babylon is Rachab ('broad'=> broadway), living in Jericho, city of palm trees (the V-enus 5 hand of God symbol), the lowest city in the world at the Black Sea. She is the symbolic mother of Boaz, the black left pillar of the temple of Solomon, Boa, the snake, everything evil. The red ribbon, her menstrual blood: the red cord, the velvet rope at the red carpet, royal bloodline, red light district of scarlett is the shape of the DNA snake, her menstrual blood. N the egyption glyph for water=>Phoenician mem (water holds memory), N with a snake tail, the symbol of the sea-goat Capricorn.

587 Nebuchadnezzar II destroys and plunders the temple of Solomon, with help from the red haired giants (the Hyksos, Esau and the Edomites, the 'red ones') on 9/11. Thousands of jews are taken captive because of an altar dedicated to Enki (Baal, the Adon). Out of fear they also worship Jehova as the God of wrath.
575 He builds the Ishtar Gate, with lapis lazuli bricks (color of Taurus) and cedar roof and doors, glorifying Marduk with horned head snake like tongue and Adad with aurochs, oxes for the Akitu festival.

The Anunaki Nordics let Cyrus (Sirius) conquer Babylon and help Darius to build Persepolis, as the capital for the new Babylonian/Persian empire, on the same 30th parallel as Eridu and Giza/Heliopolis. The Nordics ( Asura, Ahura mazda, the blue/white gods of the wind) are the visible representers of the Draco, in Darius' burial chamber they are depicted as winged solar disk. Darius builds the Suez (Zeus) canal, controlled by corrupt Amon-priests. After the captivity in Babylon, in the 6th year of Darius' reign the jews return to Juda and begin constructing a second temple.

Indian hindu's worship the solar God Vishnu, the eagle Garoeda, the snake Naga. Lucifer, the morning star=> male phallus god Shiva. The evil womb, black sun, Isis=> female star fire goddess Kali, with protruding tongue, demanding blood. The son or sun of God, Christ =>Hare /Hemres Krishna, whose followers shave off their hair. Tribe of Dan => Danu. Ancient Vedas describe a pre-flood world, filled with aircraft engaged in combat, missile launches, and descriptions of nuclear war with fallout and radioactivity. The process of abstinence, making amrita and the story how the milkyway was birthed=> churning of the milky ocean on a turtle, the shield of Orion.

500 In the East the Scythians (sakkas) worship the serpent/Saturn as Buddha. Rise of Buddhism and Jainism, preaching meditation to activate the pineal gland and using the northern swastika symbol.
Foundation of the Persian Empire by Cyrus the Great.
480 The Phoenicians sacrifice children to Saturn as the Lord (Ba'al), and as Olam (eternal time), their god Mars (Herakles) as Melqart and their war goddess Anat, mixed with Atenism= Athena.

Tammuz=>Eshmun, who was chased by Lucifer/Venus (Ashtar, Ashtaroth) and emasculated himself with an axe. He is worshipped at sauna/healing centers with sleeping halls and bath tubs using electrified water of the serpent priests (the river Asclepius, 'from a scallop'). At the temple of Telesphorus people take a brew, similar to ayuasca and dance in a circle.

In the caves of Mount Ida, Turkey the Phoenicians, sons of Hephaestos/Quaïn organize the same rituals. Through the DMT/mystery religion of rituals the theory of Ideas of how we are living in a matrix influences Greek philosophy. The rocky cave is the mythical birthplace of Jupiter/Zeus. Male sex slaves providing body fluids (nectar):GAnYmede, 'delighting in genitals', the boy pouring water replaces Sumerian Enki as the sewer/provider of semen and Egyptian Hapi as the sign Aquarius.

Isis/Ishtar, the mother godess is worshipped as Kybele in Pessinunt, Phrygia and in Anatolia/Turkey. Pieces of black meteorite are worshipped in the temple of Diana/Artemis, as the needle, the aguila/eagle, the phallic power of Kybele. In Hebrew the magic stones are called Bethel. The ascension process from the rock, the sacrum to the sun, the cerebrum= Jacobs vison of a skyladder leading to the house of God, after falling asleep on a Bethel stone.

Monumental temples at Kition, Paphos, Amathus, Golgoi are constructed for the fertility and sexuality cult of Lucifer/Venus in rural sanctuaries. In Cyprus, copper is mined, related to blue blood of the sky people. Turtoise shells are sometimes used as contraceptive, symbolize the vulva and sea-foam (aphro) is used in fertiliy rituals of the druïds so the flood event and a fragment of Jupiter turning into Venus becomes a myth where Zeus cuts off the horn/fallus of Saturn/Cronos, throws it in the sea, somewhere in Cyprus and from a seashell (symbol of golden ratio) in the foam of the sea Venus/Aphrodite is born, carried by a fish. She appears as the holy spirit, a dove, is associated with myrtle, sparrows, horses, swans, eggs, breasts, lilly, ettuce or lotuses. Venus=Hindu godess Lakshme. The 3 stars of Orion => the 3 Graeae using one single eye, Greece.

800-300 The Mycenean and Phrygian culture has spread across Greece. The tribe of Dan rules Sparta, Dodona, Thebe and Argos (named after the Ark) and the rest of Greece through its priests, the Argead dynasty. Storm god Enlil/Marduk (Ju-piter) and his lofty mountain, who killed the dragon=> Zeus, Zeu-pater, Zeus the father, that rose from the sea. Saturn=Kronos.
Aten, Athos, the Lybian Tanit and Egyptian Neith, Virgo, when a virgin is sacrificed at harvest, the equinox, central pole/spine=>the spear of the virgin Athena Pallas/Phallus, the stolen Spear of Destiny. She is associated with the spider of 13th sign (Arachne) and the distaff, used for weaving, because the world was woven into existence around her (the axis of DNA). Venus, who rules Libra, ejected from Jupiter=>Athena born out of the head of Zeus- also the star Athena above Orion, long spears and other weapons made by blacksmiths on a bull head shaped anvil, the head of Enlil/Zeus. In her temple in Athens pyromancy is practiced. She is also associated with the Grey owls with 8/testicle shaped gleaming all-seeing eyes, depicted on the coins of Athens. Iason and the Argonauts, looking for the mysterious Golden fleece of the ram= July-August-September-October-November, an imaginary arc to find Aries, associated with the North, with its large amounts of amber. The city is centered around the pole as a polis and its politia. 300 red haired Scythian slaves act as authority, rod-bearers who can make an arrest.

The moon/underworld cult of the Phrygian mother goddess celebrates these Kabeiri, chosen race of descendants of Quaïn. The red haired, fallen angels, with psychic abilities who stole the fire from the Gods=> Prometheus (forethought). The children of the sun were changed in poplar trees and cried amber tears, who fell in the Eridanos, the river known as the Amber Road.

Virgins (the Beloved ones) provide fresh blood for the elite, their blood is poured as libation from a spondé, a golden bowl, representing the sun with the belly button in the center (hence the word 'to spend'). They have amber rosaries to count the days of abstinence.

Phosp-Horus =>Apollo, the amber stone, the angel of the abyss, the shining pole-bearer, the order of the golden ratio, the sun/son of God who every day rides the chariot of heaven. He becomes the new patron saint of the increasingly popular Temple of Delphi. In his temple, oil makes fire burn in laurel wood as an eternal flame and goats are sacrificed. His sister, the moon= Artemis (adelphos means twin brother, delphinius doublet).

Osiris=>Dio-nysus (the twice-born), the Zeus from Nysa ( Ethiopia, Lybia but also the black land, the dark side, death ). He is born on the 8th month Anthesteria (the soma flower), month of Saturn. Like the druids celebrate Samhain, when the veil to the underworld gets thinner, during the 3 days the dead ancestors of the golden age are celebrated and children wear flowers in their hair. In a sacrifice ritual a queen is offered to the spirit of earth, Dyonisus to represent the sacred marriage, the hieros gamos in the marshes (earth and sea).

During winter, at the 9th month, the ninth gate, midnight of the year, the left brain Apollo/Lucifer travels to Hyperboria, and his dark, right brain, irrational alter ego feminized Dionysus takes over for 3 months. The 9th month is El-aphebolion, month of deer-hunting, the wild hunt.

He plays the role of priest of black widow Isis- female earth, the chtonian, subterranean, glooming underworld Hades (the V-pitchfork of the Hyades constellation), Saturn and his children like Plouton, enrich themselves with tears and blood sacrifice of black animals. They are the klei-douchos, the one who has phosphorus, the golden key (to immortality) that made humans from clay, the keys to escape this material existence. One of his keys is Xiphion, the sacrificial sword/flower. When the sun enters capricorn, the golden caps or capes of the corn are harvested, turn bloodred. People behave like wild and horny animals like Enki, the mountain goat that came out of the sea, the constellation Capricorn =Pan, ruled by Saturn, the box of Pan-dora. Ea= Pan, the below sea-level part of the ecliptic wave, the bowl (bowels and underbelly) and cooking pan of sacrifice. Pan plays on his panflutes and brings his slaves into trance, to their knees, in panic. Pan rules the underbody, with his reed pipes. Dia-ballein (throwing across),Baal the sower, the iblis-bird => Diabalous, the devil. Pan is the phaun with his flora of El, the sword of sacrifice.

Greek legends describe dolphins helping shipwrecked sailors and playing with children so dolphins are told to be originally Tyranai pirates that made the mistake of kidnapping Dionysus, the god of wine. To punish the kidnappers for their deed, Dionysus turned their ship sails into grape vines. When the pirates leaped into the water they turned into dolphins. Taras, the founder of Sparta is pictured as riding on a dolphin (later French Dauphin bloodline).

In march, when the spring equinox and Isis/Sirius as the beginning of the wine season approaches, sects worship Dyon-isus through the Dyonisian Mysteries with psychedelic wine. The festival of Dionysus is an orgy of violence where women go to the forests or mountains outside the town, become ecstatic on a diet of wine, dance to frantic rhythms. Sometimes they capture rabbits, hinds and fawns and in their delirium tear them to pieces with their bare hands like the ancient cannibals. Dionysus has particular power over women, causing them to reverse their protective behaviour towards their children, in myth they tear their own children to pieces in their frenzy. Dyonisus usually is surrounded by 6 nymphs (the 6 points of the star of David), rides on a pan-ther or a chariot with a bull, panther and griffin. Like Esu, Osiris, the Thracian corn deity Sabazius, he is worshipped as a godman hanging on a wooden T-pole with a crown of ivy leaves. His male followers with horse tails, horse ears and horse penises are called Satyrs, his manic female followers of Dyonisus are called Maenads (minions, daughters of King Minos). They wear leopard skins and carry a phallic Thyrsus staff, a spear enveloped ivy vines and leaves (also used to coagulate milk), a pinecone top with Thyia (cypress) seeds, dripping with honey, that represents the spine and the pineal gland. The point is said to incite madness because Thyia/cypress is used in incense burners to create holy smoke for prophesy. The kantharos wine cup, the female chalice symbol is used for the drinking ritual. Phosphorous 2-colored glass cups are made that change from jade green to ruby red, depending on light.

He is worshipped in processions with huge phalluses and virgins carrying serpents in baskets with salt and bread.Like offers to Osiris, people are sacrificed to Dionysus and dismembered in a process called sparagmos, followed by omomphagia, eating of the raw flesh of the victim, the symbolic dismembering and fragmenting of the Godhead Dyonisus, the universal Daemon into conscious beings like Set dismembered Osiris. As phallus deity he is also called Hermes (Mercury) with the nick-name (o chari-charidote, bringer of joy).

Saturn as Isis, the Babylonian constellation the furrow/ Virgo, holding an ear of barley or grain, announcing autum seeding season and date palm in her other hand=>Niki/Nike, (Vikei, Victory), an aspect of Isis, holding the laurel crown/ring of Saturn as sign of illumination after the key of Solomon, peace after war, victory over death. Nick-el, the demon in copper (related to Venus)=>Nikolaus, nick-names, claustrum, closed closet. Babylonian rituals of torches guiding ancestor spirits back to the underworld=> De-meter (earth mother) holding wheat and a torch.

Phosphor/semen from the underworld =Erichthonius, half man/half snake, the constellation Auriga, with his son Tros founder of Troy. Queen Sheba and her followers who went north=Queen Casseopeia and Cepheus. The ark=Arcus (Ursa Minor). The 7th sign Ma'at with Libra scales, ruling the buttocks=Themis, and her daughter Dike, like a Dam, also a wall/law to hold and diminish water.

Tammuz, Dumuzi, child of Saturn/Aten, the lord of Day of Atonement=>female cult of Adonis. 5D, afterlife, Atlantis, land of Saturn-El= Elysium, the Abyss, where the DNA-(h)Elix came from, the white isle -north and south pole, the white mountain,isle of fortune. At the Elysian mysteries, people drink a mixture of honey, mint, barley and DMT, access 4D (alous, stirred from joy=>halluc-inate), worshipping Lucifer as Eileitheia, goddess of childbirth. The mind controlled priestesses at Eleusis with honeycombed mind, are called 'melissae' (bees, keepers of the honey, mead beer and beeswax, meli meaning both honey and manna, juice of the ash tree). The sword of sacrifice=fleur de Elys(ium). Pythagoras, Plato, Solon, and other Greek philosophers are all initiated with the mystery teachings, the Gay Knowledge. The secret healing aspect of Apollo's knowledge, Astalluhi, sacred scallops=> the titan Atlas and Apollo's son Aesculapios with a caduceus and his therapeutae (worshippers). Health care centres are build with hot tubs for sensory deprivation and astral projection ('sleeping halls where Asclepius enters your dreams'). Initiated masters wear the Phrygian hat, the red mushroom cap.

Myrrh is a tree resin used in Egypt for mummifying and psychoactive ingredient for incense. Incense is part of rituals, spread from a burner so Adonis (the Lord) is worshipped in its own mystery cult at Lesbos is said to be born from the virgin Myrrha. Prophetesses use objects with a shiny surface until visions appear (hence the word 'mirror'). Mirak, El Marrak: Persian for the loin of the bear. The hill where this takes place is Mira-col (miracle). Kashmir of the kashmir goat=> cash.

Enuma Elis=> the poem of Orpheus, creation myth of the 4 ages. The followers of Orpheus call Saturn Phanes, identify him with Ophion.

They call the rocks containg the sacred calcium phosphate, tartar. They consider the north-east as the underworld, Tartarus, the reign of Taurus and also a region in Russia, where the shamanistic Tartares live and a huge black meteor crashed. Egyptian Khepri, the ball rolling beetle=> Sisyphus ('sisys' is the goat skin), who pushes a huge ball upward in Tartarus. The black sea is seen as the Anu, the primordial sea of blackness, linked to Tiamat (Thalassa). The Spartans throw their disabled and ugly babies (not having the golden ratio) and ennemies in a black hole. Nyx (Night) gives birth to Heaven (Uranus), who becomes the first king. The story of their Atlantean ancestors is told through the myth of Uranus (Ouranoi, the heavenly ones, the Annunaki) and Gaia give birth to 12 Titans, who lived on Mount Othrys, a mountain in Greece, made of a rock, called serpentine (snakestone), symbolic of the mountain of Enlil, Nippur, the emerald city.

the sea (male - Oceanus, female + Tethys), Coeus ( the pole star Thubis in Draco, tail of the Dragon), Iapetus (Jafet, son of Noa, white race), Theia (Atum, sexual heat, hence theatre), Rhea (Ra, mother godess), Chronus (Saturn) who castrates and kills his father with a sickle (the moon).
- Golden age time of Atlantis, immortals, living in harmony and peace.
- Silver age During the flood, Zeus (Jupiter, the thunder god) castrates and kills his father with a sickle. He goes to the sanctuary of Night, to hear the oracles. Upon hearing them, Zeus swallows the phallus of Uranus who first had ejaculated the brilliance of heaven. He and Hera make 12 children, the hybrid priestkings, annointed with oil, the Olympic deities who live on Mount Olympus.
- Bronze age Zeus created men out of the ash/Ashtar tree, a plant of the olive and lilac family with opposite leaves and winged niki seeds, that reproduces biparental. Men are though, indulge in war and passion (ash also meaning axe/spear).
Noah = Deucalion.
- Iron age , only men with no morals, no help against evil.
Saturn =>Cronos, worshipped by Satyrs. Phallus stones are placed at crossroads for good luck, annointed with oil, called Herms =>Hermes, standing on one leg, symbol of both stone and liquid like quick silver.
Enlil/ Amun=> Zeus and Hera (air, wind). Quaïn => their son Hephaestos. Saturn, Capricorn, Egyptian Min=> Pan. Eve=>Pandora. The ram people, war god Mars =>Ares wearing conehead helmet. Phosphorus/ Venus=> Aphrodite as a symbol of sexual arousal with afrodisiacs. Gilgamesh, the giants that built Malta=> Heracles, the seed of Hera/air. The mother, Hathor =>Demeter.
Inanna in the underworld=> Hades and Persephone, Medusa. Tribe of Dan and Annunaki, the Pyramid Wars, Mycenae and Hittite =>the wars of Troy and Thebe. Orion and Sirius, the dog of the underworld Anubis =>3 headed Cerberus. The moon=> Apollo's sister Artemis. Our 'heart' is derived from Hera and the hearth of fire, used to warm houses.

Scientists describe the basic substance of everything as aether (spirit). The widening gap of real science and the unitiated masses leads to the concept of the mainstream and the underground river Alpheus of hermeticism. Lucifer/Venus, the divine feminne is Sophia, (wisdom), her initiates are philo-sophia, lovers of wisdom. The pineal gland=the philo-sopher's stone.

Greek society is ruled by a homosexual, pedophilic elite, who gather at symposia. Pederasty even has its own patron saints, like Ganymede, the boy Caparyssus (cypress, symbol of mourning) and Hyacinthus, a flower born out of spilled blood. Sexuality between man and woman is considered as irrational. Women, as descendants from Eve/Pandora are considered 'calon cacon', beautiful evil, only necessary for breeding, an aspect of the Evil Eye, the seductive Venus, the kako daemon. In Greek language, words express everything male, upwards, white and shining is considered good, everything black, female and earthly as bad. Cities like Korinthe are known for their temple prostitution, where thousands of women prostituting themselves as archetype of Aphrodite, making the owners of the temple rich. Bacca:cow punished with a baculus stick => bachelor, someone who has someone else's back, doesn't have his own cows yet. Men who are still bachelor at a certain age, have to march naked through the agora singing songs about their dishonor.

As a tribute to the Golden Age, the midsummer festival Kronia celebrates social equality, slaves and their owners dine together and play dice games. Zeus is worshipped through bull sacrifice as a 13m tall statue in the Temple of Zeus on Mount Olympia, of chryselephantine-ivory and gold, sitting on a cedar wood throne, holding the celestial pole. The statue is constantly annointed with olive oil (later destroyed).

The boys and girls (kouros) who are sacrificid at full moon, are memorated by marble statues, at the side of the road leading to the temples. At the full moon closest to summer solstice they perform oil and sweat rituals with iron bars (=sport). Every four year period, every Olympiad, a hekatombu, 100 bulls are slaughtered. Reptilian flesh is sometimes used as doping.

622 Draco establishes his laws, first constitution of Athens.
Xenophanes claims there is only one God, ridiculing the antropomorphism.

609 Another battle at Har Mageddon, between pharao Necho and kingdom of Judea.
At the gnostic region of South france, Phoenicians/Phocians found Massalia (Marseille), worshipping Lucifer as Apollo/Artemis with famous gnostics like Pytheas. Another important trading outpost is the Port Veneris, port of Venus at the foot of the Pyrennees. The Greek Nordics from Argos, the Argonauts with ships made of sacred Dodone oak, visit the place for druïd oak rituals. Thales of Miletus knows that certain objects like rods of amber (the golden phallus) can be rubbed with cat's fur to magnetically attract light objects like feathers, writes about static electricity.
570-495 founding of a mystery school, later associated with Phytagoras (wisdom of the serpent people Python). The triangle of numbers (tetractys 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10), expresses their belief in the divinity of the number 10, also prevalent in kabbalistic tree of life with 10 sepiroth that express the Tetragrammaton YHVH. The tetractys is connected to the ratios of the musical scales. The head is connected to Aries, the first constellation in the zodiac, so the enlightened 3d eye is connnected to the ram, the ram with golden fleece, the lamp of 'I am' consciousness ' the Greek letter lambda or Hebrew letter Lamed, the 12th letter in Greek and Hebrew alphabet (Saturn named eL, connected to lead), later the mythical Lamb of God in Christianity. The moon is also referred to as a 'lamp', related to Venus, the palm, the hand of god.

560 Nine archons (rulers) rule Athens. Farmers suffer from poverty and become debt slaves. Cities are ruled by a lodge (Boule). To appease the protest, the aristocrat Solon puts forward a form of fake democracy.
534-475 Heraclitus of Ephesus. He knows the universe acts like a superfluid and time is an illusion, describing it in cryptic aphorisms like 'Phanta rei' (everything flows). He claims everything comes from fire 'ethos anthropoi daimon' (fire determines fate).
525 Persian invasion destroys Heliopolis. Aristocratic elite loses influence, kouroi statues become more naturalistic.
490-430 Zeno of Elea, also claiming motion does not exist.
485 The Annunaki descendant Xerxes rules Persia as King of Kings and installs a monetary economy (oikos nomia, House Law). He melts the golden statue of Marduk (Bel), causing riots.
480 Xerxes, who has an army of 10.000 soldiers of Annunaki descent, the immortals, fights Leonidas ('the lion' of summer solstice) and his 300 men at Thermopylae (the gates of Hades/hell). After his invasion of Greece, his pyramid style tent is copied as first churches, the Esiglia of Marduk=>the Siviglia of the Bar-bar, eglisia -church.

479 End of the Persian invasion, melting of their weapons to erect a 26 ft tripod of 3 serpents at Delpi.
465 Murder of Xerxes
485 New propaganda is invented to program the subconscious (drama to influence dreams). Sacrifice of the goat ('Tragos') => tragedies as part of the Dionysian Mysteries. The winged theatre is built in the shape of a radiating black sun solar plexus, the battleground of duality. In the middle of a black/white floor, in a hexagonal shape, a chorus of 12, gathers in a circle or horseshoe shape around a circular altar for blood sacrifice. Under the altar, fire is lit. As symbol of the human chest, the mounted chest is called 'or-chestra'. From an underground passage, the steps of Charon, an underworld snake deity can appear. A cave with three black doors represents the Holy Trinity. The theatre has a special seating section for the elite, the Kerkis. Because of the location and sacred geometry, the amplified energy of pity and fear, of emotional c(h)risis can be harvested and affects the earth's energy as well.

The tragedies are black masses, theatre plays where humans are nothing but toys of the Gods. The chorus of 50 men (the nr of Enlil/Zeus) and 50 boys wears masks with large 8-shaped owl eyes, dances in circles and laments the victim, who has no free will and no power over the gods. They are guided by auloi with double reed wind instruments. The energy is built up towards a loosening, a sudden release or catharsis. A mechanism with a wheel and a crane, the 'machine' lets Lucifer/Venus, queen of the night or another God or hero appear in the door in the middle, float out over the skene as a deus ex machina to resolve the drama. The machine, the crane, itself a phallus symbol is also used as a hook/fishing line to snatch dead bodies from the stage. The story is always similar to the journey of the sun/morning star: a descent into the underworld, a climax of suffering until it is reborn.

As Dyonisus is the twice-born, once from the womb of Semele -the moon, once resurrected from the leg of the bull, thigh of Zeus, his style of songs is the dithyramb, coming from 2 doors.

Afterwards vulgar, insulting comedies and Satan/Satyrs playing satire, underworld creatures, archetype of Silenus who rides on a donkey (Bottom or Ass).

The Dyonisian theatres are also built in little mobile forms as automata (Atum), the first machines, invented by Hero of Alexandria, who also invented the first hydraulic barrel organ and first slot machine. The automata have a little steam engine that produces an entirely mechanical play almost ten minutes in length, powered by a binary-like system of ropes, knots, and simple machines operated by a rotating cylindrical cogwheel, making the female puppets dance around Dyonisus. The legend of Akhenaton and his swollen limbs is told as Oeidipus (swollen foot).
499 The Greco-Persian Wars end.
447 Agenda of 'bread and games' to entertain the masses. Perikles, a Nephilim hybrid with an elongated skull orders the building of the Parthenon at Athens and the Odeion, a square-shaped building for musical contests during the Panathenae games next to the theatre of Dyonisus.
431 Peloponnesian war between the Greek city-states, mainly Athens and Sparta, the descendants from the Tribes of Dan.
Gnosticism: the matrix is explained through the gnostic allegory of the cave, theory of forms, claiming reality is an illusion and the reincarnation cycle through the Myth of Er, celestial spheres of the astral plane, moral people are rewarded (sky) and immoral people are punished (below the ground), than souls can choose a next life.
404 End of the Peloponnesian War.
400 Zapotec culture flourishes at Monte Albán.

The Aryan Hittites and Troyans, the Etruscians from Lydia move into Italy and are called Tyriani (Tyre, the son of Odin) . They consider themselves as the true descendants of the warlike El (Saturn) =>L-atin. Quaïn and Abel, Pollux and Castor =>Romus who killed Remulus from L/Remuria. Isis, the she-wolf lover of Apollo is their parent. Saturn and moon=Do-minus, the Lord.

On the Aquila, a red cross of fault lines, on seven hills aligned with the Pleiades, they build the city Rome (Ram), the city of Saturn with Capitol Hill on Mons Saturnus and Pantheon on Campus Martius, field of Mars. They build their Aerarium, their sacred treasury bank for all money on Mons Saturnus. Poets like Virgilius develop a mythology of birthright, based on Greek mythology and art but have no knowledge of sacred geometry, glorify war, power, slavery and trade. More left brain hedonism and materialism (Epicurian philosophy). Eudaemonia, the good demon, the new sacred Economia. Using the same tactics of Divide and Conquer/ Bread and entertainment, they build the Colosseum for the giant Colossus for the same underworld gladiator games, sometimes flooding the arena in with a trident, a net, helmet of invisibility, 10 days in december, sponsored by the treasury of Saturn. Roman soldiers wear the lion skin, a golden eagle conquering a snake and holding a pine cone and lightning bolts, or the golden fleece and rooster combs.

Rome itself is considered as R-Ammon/Jupiter (biblical yhvh), king of the world with the eagle of the Kundalini serpent. Rome has 12 obelisks, the 13th, the pendragon on Mons Vaticanus.

Victims for sacrifice, dressed in white are called candidatus (given the cane). They are thrown in a pool of flesh eating penis snakes like morays or cooked alive in a bull shaped oven of brass. In the head brass tubes convert the high frequencies of the yelling into the low frequency of an angry bull as a holy breath music instrument. Bulls wear a bell and are branded with X, mark of the beast at the stock market. Pigs and bulls are sacrificed to Mars, during Lustration. Children are than registrated, boys get a 'fascinus', a phallic amulet, a lead or golden bulla around their neck, girls a lunula, to ward off the Evil Eye of femininity. Public spaces are decorated with a tintinabulum, phallus with bells as protection. The Roman shaman/birdmen who interpret omens of the flight of birds are augurs who takes the auspices.

Hades (underworld)=>Pluto. Thunder God Zeus and Hera (cancer in effect during june)=>Jupiter and Juno. Equinox, Athena and her grey owls=> Min-erva. The moon =>Diana. Jupiter, Juno and Minerva are worshipped as a Holy Trinity on the Capitol in Rome, the empire is governed by 3 men (triumvirate). The phallic Herm stones=> Mercury (patron of commerce), quicksilver as combination of salt (earth) and sulphur (fire).3d leg of the bull: lex, the law, legal.
Apollo/Dionysus as the Greek sun/son of God and Mithras, the Persian sun/son of God=>Bacchus and Mythraic mystries. Saturn is worshipped during the Kronia, and Saturnalia, a carnaval of continuous partying, gambling, sacrifice and temporary different social rules at the Temple of Saturn, at 25 december. Than after a period of fasting the entrance of Lucifer, the invincable sun is celebrated as Liber during the Liberalia. The male penis has its own cult of Mutunus Titunus. Momentary pleasure is considered light as opposed to Saturn, god of time and death. The Aventine triad, trinity of Sin is installed for the materialistic ordinary plebs, of Liber, Libera (Isis/Ishtar, Demeter, female fertility, sign of Libra, holding a torch) and Ceres (the waxing moon). Mayday is celebrated with naked dancing and release of hares and goats at Floralia.
510 Lucretia, a housewife raped by the Tyran Tarquinius Superbus commits suicide. Her body is paraded in the Roman Forum, causing the rebellion that overthrows the monarchy and installs a republic.

500 Nordics dominate Northern Europe as the Sax-Coburg-Gotha bloodline. They conquer Brittain. The Aryans build the city Fynn/Vien (Lucifer, the bright, the fine one). The Gauls put beeswax the bees make to produce honeycombs in their hair to make it shine like the waxing moon.

493 The Vestal virgins (vestire, clothed) provide the amrita, menstrual blood for the elite. Their abstinance as form of sacrifice is called 'pieta', their prudeness and female prostate (guarding)=> prostitutes. The effect of libation, pouring of the blood is than celebrated as the phallic deity Liber, the concept of Libertas and his festival Liberalia. Rituals of Ceres (wax) of candle wax during waxing moon, festivals like Cerealis. Eventually as part of the bread and games tactic, a new plebeian triad is installed of Ceres, Liber and Libera. Books and the place where knowledge is hidden =>liber and library. In Greece earth quakes no longer produce the ethylene gasses and the popularity of the oracles declines. The beloved sex slaves of Roma provide honey, Amor. In the beginning of may black beans are offered to the reptilian Lemurian ancestor spirits at Lemurialia and the College of virgins make a mola salsa, a salt and flour bread of their body fluids for sacrifice (immolation).

The serpent priestess Olympia of the Argead dynasty, queen of Molossia, known for their vicious Molosser shepherd dogs gives birth to Alexander the Great III (Agesander, epiteth of Hades, ApXi Khandros, Kain of the ark). He is possesed by Enlil (Zeus Ammon). He is educated by Ari-stotle and chosen to lead the Babylonian world empire. He distinguishes himself at his first battle in Chaeronea. He travels to the desert oracle of Siwa in Lybia, at another sacred mountain where a river springs from inner earth. He is told he indeed is the son of Enlil, so he is mind controlled to believe he is the new Lucifer, the sun of God, the new Achilles, taking the Iliad with him during travels. On coins he is depicted with ram horns, the Arabs call him Dul Qarnayn, the two horned one. At the Helespont (gates of hell) he fights his first battle with Darius III and eventually defeats him. After this battle he wears a Persian garb, the robes of a mansa. In Syria, he makes sacrifices at Antiocho, the House of the Evil Eye.

322 He conquers Egypt, ends the 33th dynasty. Building of the Pharos lighthouse,a watchtower, a symbolic golden phallus, bringer of light, on an octagonal section (Saturn) on a square (Jupiter). As a recreation of the white Joachim pillar ( Athena, Hermes) on the 4 corners, a statue of Triton. On top a mirror reflects the sun, at night the fire of Saturn/Satan is lit and a statue on zeus is placed. Masons use the interlocked stone building technique to withstand the waves (evil feminity).

Ptolemaic Egypt has contact with emperor Ashoka in India (=> later Ashkenazi jews). At the height of their decadence and naval power, the court of Philadelphus stages a huge procession of exotic animals in pairs in honour of Osiris/Dyonisus (recreating ark of Noah). Cult of Isis and Osiris continues in Rome. Priests have to be Egyptian, shaven and are not allowed to eat moist food. On a specific date, priests go the sea with a cista, a basket containg the hydria, a golden urn to take water. The water is mixed with a lump of earth and shaped in the form of a crescent moon as Osiris rebirth through Isis. At the 5th of march navigium isidis a boat with gifts is slipped into the water. The initiation ritual is called 'seeing the midnight sun'. The initiated than wears a palm crown and a torch in his right hand, is celebrated like the reborn son.
300 The Greek state takes control over the Mysteries, controlled by 2 families, the Eumolpydae and the Kerykes, Luciferianism basically is a state religion.

After 13 years of ruling, Alexander and his mother are exiled to Ghana in Africa. His African descendants call him Doula Kara Naini. He builds Gwynnya/Guinéa, a prison camp for the red haired Celts (Gog and Magog). After he is poisoned at age 33, his general Philip, also horned, becomes emperor of the Seleucid Empire.

The canon for the old testament is established: the Torah, the Exodus of the serpent race.

'Wisdom' about good and evil, books of the prophets -Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel and 12 minor prophets. The races that controlled the garden of Eden are called Adamites (Atum, solars), Scythians and Phoenicians ( from Phoinos, blood red). The wealthy Pharisees and Sadducees try to gain control in Rome. The Greeks call the Phoenician city Gubal, where the production of papyrus originated, Byblos =>the holy papyrus book, the bible.

In France, the Celtic tribe the Parisii, immigrated Persians install the cult of Isis at the site Paris, align settlements with the constellation Virgo. Paris=Paradis=Elysium/4D with the Champs-Elysees, the bar of Isis, meridian with mother energy vortex, ending in Barcelona.

280 The Colossus of Rhodes, a statue of Helios (Lucifer) is erected in Greece.
250 Antikythera mechanism astrology computer.
246 Building of the terracotta army for the first emperor of China of reptilian/Nephilim bloodlines, with all statues showing long ears, heavy brow ridges. The underground is filled with mercury.
206 The Han dynasty is established in China, officially becomes a Confucian state and opens trading connections with the West, the Silk Road. Creation of the Nazca lines in South America by natives.

204 The Phrygian cult of Cybele is installed in Rome, based on excess, emasculation and selfmutilation. The priests, called Galli are eunuchs who castrate themselves under a pine tree.
200 The red haired Phoencians of Carthago sacrifice children to Alexander as the ram headed Ba'al (h)Ammon, the lord of two horns, on the hill Jebel Boukornine, where children are thrown in a pit of fire. Lucifer/Venus is the lion faced Tanit. The ashes of the victim are kept in thousands of urns.

Making of the Pergamon altar, depicting the battle between Atlantis and Lemuria, the titans and the giants, the Gigantomachy.

The Nordics sail to Peru and create the Olmec and Aztec culture with central sun deity Ra. They worship and sacrifice to Lucifer, the tall man, master of the secrets of DNA as Quetzalcoatl, the feathered serpent, the serpent Nakosh (shining one) of Adam and Eve, the evening and morning star who made the sun and the moon shine. In his T-form he is the god of wind, of Holy Breath, wearing the golden ratio conch shell. His alter ego= Xolotl. Buildings with T-shaped doorways or windows symbolize the Sacred Tree at the Center of the World (axis mundi) upon which the shaman's spirit may climb. It is the portal leading to the Great Spirit, through which the breath of life may pass. Its counterpart, the T-shaped stone stands for death.

Eden=mountain. Like the serpent was cast out of paradise, the wavy serpent is at the bottom of the Mayan pyramids. During sacrifice, when the sun is above the pyramid, the red blood gushes down the pyramid stairs (the reason the royals still climb stairs on a red carpet, the blood of their slaves). All the blood is gathered in a pit and the bones are crushed to make charcoal to light new fire for sacrifice and so on.

All across the world, the swastika symbol is used. Pyramid of Caral in Peru. Blue eyes are considered sacred. People are painted indigo blue and than sacrificed, thrown into a pit with water (based on Da'at, 'the abyss', access to the underworld of the tree of life pattern).

As a metaphor of the sun's journey, 2 groups have to kick a black ball through 2 rings of circling snakes on a ball court. Depending on the mercy of the 'gods' who decide wether somebody can live or die, the losers will eventually be burned and decapitated on top of the pyramid. They call the Lapis Exilis stone the Tecpatl and the sacrificial knives from white flint to cut out human hearts, represent the stone. Each year 20.000 people are sacrificed to Lucifer as the sun god Tonatiuh, holding human hearts in its claws and the reptilian overlords Coatlicue. Sacrifes are made for the sun of God Huitipochtli, so at winter solstice he can be reborn on top of Coatepec, snake hill. The heads of decapitated virgins are placed in the Coyolxauhqui stone, at the bottom of his temple.

Most sacrifice are made before vernal equinox, festival of the sun. The pyramids are connected to underground cities so the reptilians can control the elite and ask for blood sacrifice. Llamas (descendants of camels) and red haired children are drugged with coca and alcohol and than sacrificed in vulcanoes because they are also mountains of Luciferian fire. The mysteries are passed on from Alaska, to the Guineans (Indians), Mayans and Amazons where the vine and the potion is called Ayuhuasca. Their temple complexes are filled with snails like the golden ratio-caracol.

150 Hipparchus of Rhodes figures out the procession of the equinoxes.
149-146 Third Punic War between Rome and Carthage. The Romans destroy Carthago, impose a 'Carthagian peace', conquer Tunisia, Libya and Greece.
142 Simon Maccabee, priest and ruler of Israel, and the Hasmonean kingdom in alliance with the Roman Senate gives support to Demetrius 2, the Seleucid king. Although the Maccabees win autonomy, the region remains a province of the Seleucid Empire and Simon is required to provide troops to Antiochus, the brother of Demetrius II. When Simon refuses to give up territory, Antiochus takes it by force. Antiochus promulgates anti-semitic laws, causing a revolt of the Maccabees. The rules and regulations of Demetrius end up in the bible as Deuteronomy. The jewish priest Yosua helps Antiochus impose Greek culture upon the jews, makes them wear a hat of Hermes =>while a woman's 'head' is her husband, jewish men have to wear the jewish keppel to prove Yoshua is their head. In Antiocho, the house of the evil eye, christianity is developed.
129 Julius Caesar from the Iulus family, who claims descent from Aeneas and Venus/Lucifer (start of the Colonna bloodline), has Marfan syndrome (tall, long fingers, epilepsy seizures-caesars, Saturn is the harvester, the Caesar). His father and forefather died when putting on their shoes. He becomes a priest of Jupiter. He conquers Asia minor (Turkey). Than he conquers the Gaul with their cruel druïds (France) and the Fir Bolg who defeated the Tuatha de Dana (the Ba'al/Bel worshipping Belgae). He marries Pompeia.
49 Roman Civil War between Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great.

47 He interfears in a civil war in Egypt. He makes Cleopatra queen and stages another huge Dionysian procession with royal ark/barque and 400 ships. He builds a temple Venus Genetrix to worship Lucifer. He decrees that 3 extra months are inserted in the calendar to match the seasons (current western calendar).
44 Caesar is assasinated by 60 aristocrats like Brutus as a 'liberation' (bringing balance like Libra).The sacrifice is carried out on the Ides of March (Pi-day, 3-14) birth of a new sun, with 23 stabs (2+3=5, 23 nr of discord). The sacrifice is celebrated on coins with 2 daggers and the pileus, liberty cap. Eventually, after a civil war the Roman Republic is turned into Roman Empire ruled by Caesar's heir Augustus. Emperors are baptised through drinking the blood of a dying bull in a Taurobolium, on the Vatican hill. His title becomes Kaizer and czar.
40 When the Romans conquer Egypt, Alexandria is an important cultural Hellenistic city with a mouseion (temple of the Muses) and a library, containing 700.000 book rolls is neglected. The most important books about pre-flood history are moved to the Vatican.
29 In India after oral preservation the Buddhist texts, the Pali Canon is written down, 'Cakkavatti Sihanada Sutta': the story of humanity's decline from a golden age in the past, with a prophecy of its eventual return. The sun=> Indra. Pandu: the yellow phallus of the sun, Kunti: the culva.Aryan stock=>aristocracy. Aryan=> Iran.

Not only temples but entire cities are built as a ring with high phallusses/antennas to make cymatic patterns on the template of the Temple of Jerusalem: an enclosure of the gentiles, ordinary people, a ring of initiated priests and a high mount, Holy of Holies. Saturn is depicted with the horns and hooves of capricorn, and the trident of Poseidon, power over heaven, earth and hell=> Satan. Rings of Saturn=halo of the angels. The Goths worship Saturn as God, with the G, the 7th letter, representing everything 'good'.

The Golden Shrine of Queen Tiye: Reburial of a Rebel Ruler and His Mother - Part II - History

the Aten of Pharaoh Akhenaten :
a monotheism of light without darkness

colos of Amenhotep IV

Gem-pa-Aten temple at East Karnak
"the Aten is found" - Cairo Museum

O sole god without equal !
You are alone, shining in your form of the living Aten.
Risen, radiant, distant and near.
Great Hymn, 47 & 73-74.

The translation of The Great Hymn to the Aten is part of my Ancient Egyptian Readings (2016), a POD publication in paperback format of all translations available at These readings span a period of thirteen centuries, covering all important stages of Ancient Egyptian literature. Translated from Egyptian originals, they are ordered chronologically and were considered by the Egyptians as part of the core of their vast literature.


1 The New Kingdom and the colossal Amenhotep III

2 Prelude to Amarna religion : the "New Solar Theology"

CULTIC : dictatorial eradications & an imposed religion

NOMIC : radical naturalization of the "old" religion

COSMIC : only light, presence and movement

MYSTIC : exclusive & highly subjectified

5 Why was Akhenaten's monotheism sterile ?

6 Ancient Egyptian religion after Amarna

The use of capitals in words as "Absolute", "God" or "Divine", points to a rational context (i.e. how these appear in a theology conducted in the rational mode of thought - cf. cognition, neurophilosophy & theonomy). Hence, when these words are used in the context of Ancient Egyptian ante-rational thought (which, as a cultural form, was mythical, pre-rational & proto-rational), this restriction is lifted. Hence, words such as "god", "the god", "gods", "goddesses", "pantheon" or "divine" are not capitalized.

► Personal piety and the horizon of contact with the Divine

In The Seach for God in Ancient Egypt (2001), the egyptologist Jan Assmann proposed to measure Ancient Egyptian religion (its activities and experiences) using three "dimensions". These represent their conceptual horizon of contact with the divine, namely :

" . there was no explicit and coherent explanation of Egyptian theology on the metalevel of theoretical discourse in Ancient Egypt any more than there were theoretical explanations in other areas, such as grammar, rhetoric or historiography. As is well known, the development of theoretical discourse, at least in the Mediterranean world, was an accomplishment of Greek culture." - Assman, 2001, p.9.

For Assmann, there are multiple dimensions, some of which "are realized in dominant form in any given historical religion". 2 The ones mentioned above were treated in a dominant fashion in Ancient Egyptian religion. In Assmann's reading, the Amarna religion assisted in the breakthrough of a fourth dimension in the era that followed it, called by Breasted "the age of personal piety" (1912). By closing the temples and banishing the deities of the old religion, Akhenaten had forced the worshippers to resort to internal gods & goddesses "placed in the heart" (mind).

Because, according to Assmann, the mystic "absolutizes the inner presence of the divine and takes satisfaction in it" 3 , he is reluctant to name this fourth dimension of "personal piety" truly "mystical". However, this holds only true if his definition of mysticism is accepted, which is not the case here.

Mysticism is the direct experience of the Divine. On the basis of the provisional comparative form of the phenomenology of Hinduism (Classical Yoga), Judaism (Qabalah), Christianity (the Jesus-people) and Islam (Sufism of Al Junayd and Ibn'Arabî), arrived at by means of a comprehensive hermeneutical and participant observational approach, the more mature and unfolding architecture (form) of this radical experience is conceived as implying a bi-polar one-fold. The universal & fundamental structure of this experience, always reflects both the inner as well as the outer aspect of the Divine (cf. Divine bi-polarity).

Negative theology puts the mysticism of un-saying in perspective : the essence of the Divine is unknown, ineffable, incomprehensible and absolutely absolute. Positive theology affirms the Presence of the Divine in the created order. Like Bergson, I would like to suggest that the mystics are the true founders of the religions. Also that mystical experience is a universal human factor able to manifest in formidable everyday experiences (orgasm, strong emotions, aha, serendipity, cognitive paradox, synchronicity, inventivity, true love, creativity through service). See on these differences : Introduction to a Colorful Recital.

The mature mystic finds the Divine "in the heart" (inner, the seer) but he or she also unveils that everything what can be experienced (outer, the seen) is the Self-manifestation of the Divine. This may explain their strength facing evil (cf. theodicy).

However, to consider the mystic as exclusively focused on the inner side of the equation (as does Assmann) is limiting mysticism by a theistic approach of the Divine, which stresses the absent, transcendent and remote characteristics. All major traditions interested in the experience of the mystics themselves (exploring mysticism in an experiential way) are confronted with the "agonizing polarization" 4 between manifest and hidden. All major mystic traditions have identified these two poles and were aware of the tension. It is typical for the mystics that although they identify the two seas (salty & sweet) they never eclipse the fact that the water of life is one living water of Divine Presence (as Marguerite Porete so admirably synthesized in the character of "Loinprés", Farnear - a theme explicit in Amarna theology & later in Theban theology). The bi-polarity is a phenomenon taking place within a fundamental, implicit, unbreakable, eternal but unfolding unity (cf. "pan-en-theos" : all-in-God - cf. henotheism).

As Staal demonstrated 5 , mysticism implies a structure of direct experience (between the mystic and the Divine, both inner as outer) and a superstructure which is a verbal thematization of the experience (as a solitary and/or as a group) which may lead to textualization and canonization. To limit the structure of mystical experience to being satisfied with a fusion with the inner, hidden & remote aspect of the Divine, is considered by mystics (in the East, Middle East and West) as a limitation and an incomplete experience of the Divine (cf. Ibn'Arabî on the paradoxical, wonderous perplexity of the "station of no station", and Sufi criticism on stressing Divine remoteness). It may even lead to insanity and heresy. The mature mystic has inner trance and outer sobriety (cf. Al-Junayd). Trance without sobriety is insanity. Sobriety without trance is utter darkness. Outer sobriety is also regulated by the idea of moral harmony (cf. Maat), i.e. symmetrical communication with other human beings aiming at establishing, sustaining & differentiating the common good (of nature, family, society, the planet, etc.).

In this paper, I will consider the "breakthrough" of "personal piety", contrary to Assmann, indeed as "mystical". Moreover, the fact this "personal piety" became so important after Amarna is not denied, but its traces in the earlier stages of Ancient Egyptian religion are considered differently. True, only after the fall of the Old Kingdom is the conception of the soul ("bA") generalized and popularized (everybody had a "ba"). In the Middle Kingdom, as testified in the Coffin Texts, officials and their subordinates could also attain the enjoyment of the afterlife (continued existence and no "second death"), and eventually every deceased person was an "Osiris NN".

But, in the Old Kingdom (and also thereafter) Pharoah was a paradoxical figure, for he was a "god on Earth" while the other gods & goddesses abided in the other world, present in their temples and images in a symbolical and subtle fashion only (they sent their doubles -"kAw"- and souls -bAw- while their spirits -"AXw"- remained in the sky). Because religious activity happened between the deities 6 (the temples do not mediate but were loci of the indwelling 7 of the divine), the figure of Pharaoh, the "Great House" and divine king was extraordinary. Hence, in the Old Kingdom, the overt manifestation of the mystical approach of the divine was an exclusive royal prerogative, or as the Pyramid Texts claim :

"Men hide, the gods fly away."
Pyramid Texts, utterance 302 (§ 459).

Does this royal prerogative of the mystical in the written record imply the common Egyptians had no direct religious experience ? Did they, in their private domain, in the temple of their nome and in the regular festive processions outside the sacred precinct, never experienced the "radical other" (totaliter aliter) ? In the official point of view, only Pharaoh had a direct experience of the divine (being a god himself) and thus rose vertically to the stars, while all others Egyptians were barred from contact with the divine, except within the confines of their own inner subjectivity.

"Although in all periods relatively few people were directly involved in the cult, the temples and the cult performed in them would have existed in a partial vacuum if they had corresponded with little in the lives of the other people. Apart from this general point, several literary texts become more meaningful if it is assumed that contact with the deity, or experience of the deity, was considered possible."
Baines, J. : "Society, Morality and Religious Practice", in Shafer, 1991, p.173.

In the private tombs of Sheshi (VIth Dynasty - Saqqara) & Harkhuf (VIth Dynasty - Assuan), a stylized catalog of virtues occurs. These virtues are not told in the prose of the narrative autobiography but were recited in an orational style. 8 They suggest great intellectual and literary capabilities. 9 Together with the Maxims of Ptahhotep (Vth Dynasty under Izezi or Djedkare) they evidence interior reflection, wisdom and a search for true peace. Why would these individuals not have attained mystical states of consciousness ? Moreover, Ptahhotep is eager to relate how wisdom (with which no one is born) and the good (like wealth & peace) come by virtue of the deities. Apparently, they are not restricted to Pharaoh.

(139) If You are a weakling, serve a man of quality, worthy of trust,
(so) that all your conduct may be well with god.
(141) Do not recall if once he was of humble condition,
(142) do not let your heart become big toward him,
(143) for knowing his former state.
Respect him for what has accrued to him,
(145) for surely goods do not come by themselves.
(146) They are their laws for him whom they love.
(147) His gain, he gathered it himself,
(148) (but) it is god who makes him worthy,
(149) and protects him while he sleeps.

Ptahhotep : Maxims of Ptahhotep, maxim 10, D175 - "they" and "theirs" refer to the deities

Hence, regarding the horizon of contact with the divine, at least four elements seem valid :

► The Great Hymn to the Aten of Akhenaten

In the history of Egypt of Manetho (third century BCE), which became authoritative from Antiquity down to modern times (although full of inconsistencies), Pharaoh Akhenaten (ca. 1353 - 1336 BCE), is not mentioned as such. Instead, the names "Acencheres" (in Josephus), "Acherres" (in Africanus) and "Cherres" (in Eusebius) prevail.

"The Eighteenth Dynasty consisted of 14 kings at Thebes. (. ) Achencheres ruled for 16 years. In his time Moses became leader of the Jews in their exodus from Egypt."
Manetho, 3th century BCE.

The Ramessides were deemed the immediate successors of Amenhotep III. Instead, Manetho handed down a story which was recorded by Josephus, according to which lepers ruled over Egypt during the reign of "Amenophis". They were in league with the Hyksos for 13 years and burned the cities, destroyed the temples and the statues of the gods. The period before Tutankhamun came to the throne is also described by Manetho as a period wherein "The land experienced an illness, and the deities did not look after this land." 10 Other classical writers like Herodotus, Diodorus and Strabo manifest no knowledge of this "heretic king". His memory had been suppressed. He had been forgotten .

"The simplest and commonest technique of forgetting is the destruction of memory in its cultural objectifications such as inscriptions and iconic representations. This is what happened to the monotheistic revolution of Akhenaten, and the destruction was thorough enough to keep this event completely unretrievable until its archaeological rediscovery in the course of the nineteenth century. (. ) Another technique of forgetting is silence. This technique was practiced by the Amarna texts, which never speak of what they implicitly reject." - Assmann, 1997, p.216, my italics.

After the death of Tutankhamun (ca. 1323 BCE), the vandalism and destruction of the monuments erected by Akhenaten at Akhetaten was on its way. Under Pharaoh Ramesses II (ca. 1279 - 1213 BCE), dismantlement and reuse were stepped up. A century after his death, Akhenaten is no longer named by his name, but as "the rebel" ("sebiu") or "the criminal" ("kheru") of Akhetaten.

"It seems likely that chronicles or annals in temple archives preserved some record of him and his reign. These chronicles were perhaps still extant in the third century BCE when they were consulted by historians writing in Greek, and a rather garbled version of Akhenaten's story was transmitted into the classical tradition." - Montserrat, 2001, p.29.

Although in November 1714, the Jesuit father Claude Sicard had made copies of one of Akhenaten's boundary stelæ 11 and J.Gardner Wilkinson had discovered the tombs of his officials in 1824 and had made copies, both of these finds did not appear in print until years after Champollion's death. 12 In his summary of Egyptian history (in the Appendix of his Letters from Egypt) 13 , the latter proceeded immediately from Amenophis III to his son "Horus", who continued the work of his father and had two weak successors, after which Seti I led Egypt to new heights .

On the 26th of June 1851, Karl Richard Lepsius (who had arrived at Tell el-Amarna -the modern place name of Akhetaten-on the 19th of September 1843) communicated his conclusions that a "highly noteworthy episode in the history of Egyptian mythology" had taken place. Amenophis IV (identified with Akhenaten) opposed the prior worship of Amun with a "pure cult of the Sun : only the disk itself was tolerated as its unique image" . He also mentions Akhenaten had commanded "the names of all the deities be hacked away from all public monuments, and even from the accessible private tombs, and that their image be destroyed to the extent possible" . 14 Slowly the learned world realized the existence of Akhenaten. The first monograph entirely devoted to the "heretic king" was written by Arthur Weigall in 1910. 15

The empty tomb of Akhenaten had been discovered by locals in 1881 - 1882. In 1887, locals again discovered the famed archive of clay tablets (380 of them) containing the cuneiform correspondence of Akhenaten and his father with the princes of Western Asia. The authoritative edition was made by J.A.Knudtzon in 1915. 16

Between 1883 and 1884 , Urbain Bouriant, thank goodness, made a copy of the Great Hymn in the tomb of Aya (a brother of Teye, the mother of Akhenaten and tutor, even father-in-law of the reformer) of which a third was maliciously destroyed in 1890 (during a quarrel among local inhabitants). 17 On the basis of this copy, the famed Great Hymn to the Aten could be studied for the first time by James Henry Breasted in 1895 in his Berlin dissertation : De Hymnis in Solem sub Rege Amenophide IV conceptis ("On the Hymns to the Sun composed under Amenophis IV"). 18

Contrary to the Memphis Theology, the Great Hymn to the Aten is not a composite work, neither does it have more than one temporal layer (the original of the former work may be written in the XVIIIth Dynasty, more likely in the XXth Dynasty, but older layers from the Vth Dynasty can not be ruled out). The Great Hymn gives, ex hypothesis, a clear and comprehensive picture of the ideals of Akhenaten himself, and was most likely composed by the king himself. The core of this ideal being a return to the exclusive, pivotal and mediating role of divine kingship, in casu Akhenaten's, coupled with a naturalistic reduction to visible light (represented by the Solar disk, the Aten). The Shorter Hymn to the Aten, which occurs in five Amarna tombs, has beauty but lacks structural unity and can therefore not make the same cosmopolitan and humanist leap as reflected in the Great Hymn to the Aten.

What is the philosophical interest of this text ? Following topics emerge :

history of philosophy : the claim philosophy started in Greece is traditional but questionable. True, in the Classical Age, Greek philosophy discovered the rational mode of cognition, but philosophy is not limited to this mode. In Greek philosophy, this is attested by the importance of the Ionic, Eleatic and Sophist schools of thought, evidencing the mythical (pre-logical), pre-rational and proto-rational modes. The later are always included in any systematic history of philosophy.

Let us eliminate his Hellenization of philosophy, rooted in Europacentrist opinions (Indian & Chinese philosophy for example are usually also excluded, although exceptions do occur - cf. the history of philosophy of Störig). 19 The Memphis Theology, the Maxims of Ptahhotep, the Great Hymn to the Aten and many Ramesside Hymns to Amun-Re show a philosophical insight (albeit mostly proto-rational) far beyond the limitations of Ionic thought, which seems very rudimentary compared to the magnificent synthesis brought about in the late New Kingdom and the depth of the sapiental instructions found in the Old Kingdom (centered around the concept of justice or "Maat").

metaphysics : is an untestable but arguable set of speculative propositions aiming at a totalized explanation of being and its processes. It appeared as a separate discipline only after the works of Aristotle were put together by Andronicos of Rhodos (ca. 40 BCE), who placed these books "next to" (meta) Aristotle's work on physics (proving the relationship between both). In Ancient Egypt, especially in the Old & Middle Kingdoms, metaphysics is mostly shrouded in mythology and the specifics of Egyptian religion. Nevertheless, in the Maxims of Ptahhotep (the emerging idea of an overall ethical order), in the Pyramid Texts (hymns & ascension-texts), in the Memphis Theology (the logos-section), and other sapiental works, loci of metaphysical thought may be discerned.

theology : Assmann argues polytheism was explicit and the problem of the divine (the search for the One) implicit. 20 The common folk were polytheists and at a certain point in their religious history, the high priests and temple officers tried to solve the fundamental problem of every theology, namely theonomy (the name(s) of the Divine) and the solution of the tensions between the hidden and manifest poles of Divine bi-polarity. At the end of the Old Kingdom & in the Middle Kingdom, the realization the divine order could be broken up, triggered theodicy (which vanished from the literature of the New Kingdom).

My reading of Ancient Egyptian literature 21 suggests both polytheism, monolatery and henotheism were "originally" present. In the Old Kingdom, the Great One stays foremost in the background (cf. Atum in the dominant Heliopolitan cosmology, the unity of the Two Lands, the exclusive status of Pharaoh and the role of Maat, the universal order). In the Middle Kingdom, the first henotheistic attempts occur (cf. Amun as "king of the gods", the synergy of Re and Osiris). In the New Solar Theology of the Early New Kingdom, the Great One comes to the fore as Re, mingles with the pantheon and assimilates the deities in a theophanic (henotheism) way.

But Akhenaten was the first to consequently destroy the multiplicity of the old religion. His Aten stood above and was against all deities. The Aten was the "sole god", i.e. quantitatively singular (monotheism). A step too far ?

1 The New Kingdom and the colossal Amenhotep III

1.1 A few political features of the New Kingdom : the age of empire.

Politically, the New Kingdom brought internationalization, which defied the particularism of the Old and Middle Kingdoms. From Myceanae, Knossos, Mitanni, Babylon, and from the Hittites, Assyrians, Libyans & Nubians, gifts & trade goods were flowing in. The XVIIIthe & XIXth Dynasties produced great monuments of theocratic statesmanship.

The reign of Amenhotep III (ca. 1390 - 1353 BCE) was a period of stabilty and peace, the foundations of which had been laid by Akhenaten's grandfather, Tuthmosis IV (ca. 1400 - 1930 BCE), who had brought to end decades of military conflict between the two great powers of the area, Egypt and the kingdom of Mitanni, fighting over the control over northern Syria. The court of Amenhotep III became an international center visited by ambassadors of many nations. Even Asiatic deities such as Reshef, Astarte, Baal and Qudshu were worshipped.

In the Book of Gates (Vth Hour), the "wretched" Aziatics, Nubians & Libyans were placed under the protection of Egyptian deities . Luxurious living in a setting of peace reached its climax under Amenhotep III. He never set foot in his Asiatic empire but acquired princesses for his harem and lavished gold on his allies.

1.2 The great builder, dated Sed-festivals & his traditional piety.

The temple of Luxor, the double temple of Soleb and Sedeinga (Nubia) and the mortuary temple at the West bank of Thebes (destroyed by an Earthquake, leaving the 720 tons Colossi of Memnon, suggesting the original size of the building and Pharaoh's megalomania), identified Amenhotep III as one of the greatest builders Egypt had known. He strove to surpass his predecessors in number, size and spendor of his buildings. He also used unusual building materials like gold, silver, lapis lazuli, jasper, turquoise, bronze and copper and noted the exact weights of each, in order to capture "the weight of this monument" . 23

As long as there have been Pharaohs, there have been Sed-festivals. 24 Already in the first Dynasties (ca. 3000 BCE), Pharaoh ran the course of the festival or sat enthroned in his chapel. The goals of the ritual celebration was the renewal of the power of Pharaoh, thought to have depleted over time, endangering the state (compare this with the prehistorical notion of the sacrificial king found around the globe but also on the African continent). Instead of killing the ruler, it was considered sufficient to effect the symbolical burial of a statue of the "old" king and allow him to repeat his coronation. The ritual course was run before all the deities of the land, showing the renewal of rulership.

In the Middle and New Kingdoms, Pharaoh celebrated this Jubilee before the end of his thirtieth year of rule, and then it was repeated at shorter intervals of three to four years. The connection with his coronation was important. Pharaoh was enthroned in Memphis, and so he wore a special vestment during most of the ceremonies, a mantle-like garment like Ptah (distinguishing statues specially prepared for the festival). So between coronation and ascension, there was this Sed-festival which only Pharaoh could celebrate, nobody else.

"By the thirteenth year of the reign, with Nubia stabilized and the vast empire at peace, Egypt was at the height of its wealth and power. The rule of Amenhotep III saw four decades of prosperity uninterrupted by war for the people of Egypt it was a time of unparalleled security and optimism - a golden age presided over by a golden king. To Amenhotep's grateful subjects it must have seemed that this succes proved that he was at one with the gods themselves." - Fletcher, 2000, p.76.

a Libyan, a Canaanite, a Syian and a Nubian bow
XVIIIth Dynasty - Cairo Museum

Amenhotep III celebrated his Sed-festival in his thirtieth regnal year. Many dated inscriptions are preserved on vessels from his palace at el-Malqata, on the West bank of Thebes. He celebrated two repetitions of this festival before his death. Japanese excavations uncovered a podium for a throne. It has thirty steps, which stand for the thirty years that had gone by. The festival was clearly a repetition of the coronation. In it, he called himself "the Dazzling Sun" and at his side his chief wife, Teye, played the role of Hathor, who stood for all aspects of rejuvenation & regeneration. During the festival, Amenhotep III endeavored to gather all the deities of the Two Lands to perform its ceremonies in front of the shrines containing their various divine images . He is also seen worshipping and offering to himself as a god !

"The importance of the Aten grew throughout Amenhotep III's long reign. In the last decade of his rule the king even officially identified himself as the sun god the Aten." - Fletcher, 2000, p.61.

What we know of Amenhotep III proves he was not an "enlightened" ruler, but instead stayed deeply rooted in traditional piety. 25 Although the New Solar Theology was active around him, he prevented this single god (Re) from gaining the upper hand. Large scarabs connect him with numerous deities. The aged & sick Pharaoh (who had received from the king of Mitanni a healing statue of Ishtar) commissioned (instead of asking Ishtar) a total of 730 (2 x 365) statues of the lion-headed goddess Sekhmet, the consort of Ptah who dispensed illness and its cure. He set this litany in stone up in various temples at Thebes to protect him day and night. Clearly Amenhotep III did not want to promote Re and his disk, the Aten at the expense of any other known divine power.

"There were definitely tendencies -and not only at the royal court- that ran counter to the New Solar Theology and its elevation of a single god over the entire pantheon in a manner that was altogether too one-sided and, in that respect, un-Egyptian." - Hornung, 1999, p.20.

2 Prelude to Amarna religion : the "New Solar Theology"

2.1 The antiquity of the title "Son of Re" in Pharaoh's titulary.

Under the IVth Dynasty (of the Old Kingdom), the priests of Re of Heliopolis consolidated a form of the Sun-god of obscure origin. 26 Their influence was strong enough to make the first Pharaoh of the Vth Dynasty (Userkaf - ca. 2487 - 2480 BCE) highpriest of Re and begotten by Re himself. Re had visited the wife of Userra, a highpriest of Re. This could be called the moment when monolatry became an affair of state.

Seldom do all five names appear together on a single royal monument. When only one name was used, the Throne name was the most common.

" From this time onward every king of Egypt, whether of Egyptian origin or not, called himself the 'son of Râ'. In later days, when Amen, or Amen-Râ, became the King of the Gods, it was asserted by his priesthood that the god assumed the human form of a man and begot the king of Egypt." - Budge, 1989, p.33, my italics.

2.2 The theology of the Sun, of light and movement.

In the course of the XVIIIth Dynasty (ca. 1539 - 1292 BCE), the Sun god Re was turned into an all-embracing creator-god, manifesting himself under various names & forms. The Books of What is in the Duat (the netherworld, "Unterwelt", "monde inférieur" or Rilke's "Weltinnenraum") were the new guides to the hereafter (cf. Amduat). Contrary to the Book of the Dead which was a development of the Coffin Texts, it was a new, foremost royal literary genre (even absent from the tombs of the queens). The Book of the Dead continued to be an ever-changing collections of spells, but these religious books had a permanent content. The nocturnal, otherworldly forms of the Sun god, and their effect in the netherworld, was the focus of these books. They furnished "the ordering and creative principles for the spaces in the hereafter" 28 and hence deal with the nocturnal regeneration of the Sun, implying that on the far side of death renewal is at work and that the netherworld is the "interior of the sky". The early books arrange the nightly course of the Sun in twelve hours, with the Solar Bark in the center of each hour. Later, this Bark disappears, and Re is indicated by a red Sun disk, which remains absent from the damned.

In his Egyptian Solar Religion in the New Kingdom (1995) and The Search for God in Ancient Egypt (2001) Assmann defines the "New Solar Theology" as :

". the explication and representation of the course of the sun in the non-constellative categories of explicit theology. (. ) The New Solar Theology arose as a cognitive iconoclasm that rejected the entire mythic, pictoral world of polytheistic thought. All its basic principles can be understood as theological explications of cosmic phenomena, specifically the sun, its light, and its movement." - Assmann, 2001, p.201.

The Theban god Amun and the pure Re aspect of the Sun god were akin, for both were understood to be the supreme being, the primeval god, the creator god and the god of life. The Theban theology of the early New Kingdom tried to formulate a theology of Amun-Re which would be comprehensive enough to include the traditions of both Amun and Re. By accumulation and juxtaposition their various features were combined. So the Theban theology of the XVIIIth Dynasty is a continuation of the search for a henotheist articulation of the divine, which had been initiated in the Middle Kingdom. It is also the starting point of the quest for a new concept of the divine (not only "before" everything, but also "in" every thing). 29

Different texts evidence this search. For example, consider the Hymns to Amun-Re and the tomb stela of the architects Suti and Hor from the reign of Amenhotep III. 30 In these two Hymns to the Sun god, these twin brothers gave a prominent place to the Aten, the physical disk of the Sun. The major themes of Amarna religion are to be found : the Sun, its light and its movement.

"Self-made you fashioned your body,
Creator uncreated.
Sole one, unique one, who traverses eternity.
Remote one, with millions under his care
your splendor is like heaven's splendor,
your color brighter than its hues.
When you cross the sky all faces see you,
When you set you are hidden from their sight
Daily you give yourself at dawn,
Safe is your sailing under your majesty.
In a brief day you race a course,
Hundred thousands, millions of miles
A moment is each day to you,
It has passed when you go down. (. )
When you set in the western mountain,
They sleep as in the state of death."
Suti & Hor : Hymn to the Sun god, Stela British Museum 826, translated by : Lichtheim, 1976, p.87.

In this hymn, most of the elements which became prominent in Amarna religion are present before Akhenaten implemented the final consequences of his reflections on the divine. This New Solar Theology is not an early form of Amarna religion, for these texts "pick up after the Amarna Period at exactely the point at which this new development had been interrupted by Akhenaten's upheaval and continued down until nearly the end of the history of Egyptian religion, side by side with texts expressing the rehabilitated constellative theology of the course of the sun." 31

That besides the Sun god no other divinities could be tolerated is the original step taken by Akhenaten. Hence, not so much the contents of his message was original and heretic, but rather the politico-religious form in which he poured it (a royal monotheism based on the exclusive nature of the king) as well as the radical way he implemented it (cf. the brutal destruction of the cults and the eradication of the name of Amun).

"The New Solar Theology stood, and understood itself, in the context of the other deities. By way of an example, the frame of the stela of the two architects contains offering prayers to, among others, Hathor, Khons, Mut, Amun-Re, Anubis and the God's Wife Ahmes-Nefertari. Though other deities no longer participated in the course of the sun, they were nevertheless there, and their mere existence stood in the way of a total demythologizing and disenchantment of the world." - Assmann, 2001, p.208.

2.3 the naturalization of the divine in religious experience

The core of this New Solar Theology has been identified by Assmann as a cognitive iconoclasm which replaced the mythicizing world view with the visible course of the Sun, its light and movement (heliomorphism).

This demythologizing and subsequent disenchantment comes about by eliminating these elements of religious experience which can not be brought back to the natural course of events. In fact, as there is no divine presence other than the light of the Aten, "we stand here at the treshold less of the monotheistic universal religions than of natural philosophy, and had this religion won out, we might have expected a Thales rather than a Moses." 32

colos of Amenhotep IV

Gem-pa-Aten temple at East Karnak
"the Aten is found" - Cairo Museum

3.1 Again Pharaoh's titulary.

Did Amenhotep III reign with his son ? A long coregency of the two Pharaohs is excluded. 33 In fact, for a long time, the prince could have entertained little hope that he would ever mount the throne of his ancestors, for his brother prince Tuthmosis had been recognized as the heir of Amenhotep III and as such filled the office of Governor of Memphis and High Priest of its god Ptah. But he died young for unknown reasons (in year 27, ca. 1365 BCE).

The royal titulary may be seen as the program of a reign.

At his ascent (ca. 1353 BCE), the Throne name adopted by Amenhotep IV was : "Nefer-kheperu-Re Waenre" (or : "perfect are the manifestations of Re, sole one of Re"). He never changed this.

His first sanctuary (a temple-complex) rose at Karnak. Extensive work has revealed tens of thousands of building blocks from a variety of structural elements, as whole temple walls. At the outset of his reign, large blocks were used, whereas later the new sanctuaries of Aten were built from small, easily carried sandstone blocks which were one handbreadth in height and two in width ("talatat" or "three"-blocks). One of the sanctuaries seems to have been reserved for Pharaoh's wife Nefertiti ("the beautiful one has come") depicted as carrying out cultic activities which are normally performed by Pharaoh. Five years later, he would stop adorn Thebes with temples for the Aten.

Amenhotep IV did not dedicate this complex at Karnak to Amun-Re, the "king of the gods" and cultic lord of the temple, but to the Sun god as viewed by the priests of Heliopolis, namely Re-Herakhty ("Re-Horus of the Two Horizons") also called "Aten" and understood as the dwelling-place of Shu (Aten had been used to indicate the physical Sun and now received worship as a deity). This "new god" which Akhenaten's teaching initiated, was given a formal (dogmatic, didactical) name : "Re-Herakhty, who rejoices in the horizon in his name Shu, who is Aten".

Re-Herakhty was worshipped in his traditional form of the heroic god. In the Old Kingdom, Herakhty had been venerated in On (Iunu, Heliopolis) as "Horus of the Two Horizons". He was represented as a falcon bearing the Uraeus-encircled solar disk on his vertex. He is the Sun god emerging at dawn, sovereign of the sky and knower of the holy places where the blessed souls abide.

"The reed-floats of the sky are set in place for Re.
That he may cross on them to the horizon.
The reed-floats of the sky are set in place for Herakhti.
That Herakhti may cross on them to Re."
Pyramid Texts, utterance 263 (§ 337).

Horus of the Two Horizons, combined Re and Horus, and as Re-Herakhty, the translation "king of the sky" is also applicable. This god is a solarized Horus, symbolizing the emergent, dawning power of the fully rejuvenated & regenerated Solar deity, an eternal, beautiful youth. Herakhty was associated with the East, Re with the West. Together, they were "Horus of the two Horizons", as Akhenaten would insist.

In early inscriptions, Akhenaten still appeared before Amun-Re in the traditional manner. On a scarab in the British Museum, he is designated as the one "whom Amun-Re chose from among millions" !

In the third year of his reign, Akhenaten also enclosed the didactical name of the Aten in a cartouche, as if it were part of the royal titulary. From the third to the fifth regnal year, he carried out a vast "Aten-project" or a formidable and thorough reorganization in religion, art, language, cult administration, economy etc. (in year 4, the high priest of Amun was literally sent "into the desert" and priest were reindoctrinated).

In the fifth year, the new Residence, Akhetaten ("Horizon of the Aten") is a gigantic construction site. The project was never really finished (Pharaoh was unusually depicted with a hammer in his hand), but in the fifth or sixth year, Amenhotep IV changed his royal titulary. 34

These changes were recorded on a boundary stelæ of year 6 (fourth month of winter, day 13) :

"The living Horus : Strong Bull beloved of Aten Two Ladies : Great of Kingship in Aten Gold-Horus : Who exalts the name of Aten the King of Upper and Lower Egypt who lives by Maat, the Lord of the Two Lands : Nefer-kheperu-Re, Sole-one-of-Re the Son of Re who lives by Maat, the Lord of crowns : Akhenaten, great in his lifetime, given life forever."
Akehenaten : Later Boudary Stelæ, at El-Amarna, translated by : Lichtheim, 1976, p.49, italics are cartouched.

Akhenaten made fourteen stelæ to record his founding of the new City of Light, Akhet-Aten ('the horizon of the Aten"). First three boundary stelæ were carved into the limestone cliffs on the East bank, at the northern & southern ends of the town. Later eleven more were cut into the cliffs, eight on the East and three on the West bank. The actual city lay only on the East bank, where the cemeteries are also to be found. He never did anything on the West bank, so the traditional "beautiful West" (the realm of the dead) played no role. The eleven stelæ bear one basic text with some additions and variations.

His traditional titles remained, but he used to style himself "the beautiful child of the living Aten". About four years later, the Aten too received a new royal titulary. The names Horus and Shu were removed from the new double cartouche, leaving only Aten and Re. The new "didactic" name or credo became : "Re-ruler-of-the-twin-horizons, who rejoices in the horizon in his name as Re-the-father-who-returns-as-Aten." 36

These changes point to one direction only : the variety of appellations are avoided to the advantage of a single, unique deity : Re as the Aten. All associations with Amun (theological as wel as political) are eliminated. Also Atum is avoided, for this would associate creation too much with the first time ("zep tepi") and the chaotic realm before creation (Nun). Of this, no mention is made for there is no divine presence other than light.

There are reasons to believe Akhenaten inaugurated the royal status of the Aten with the celebration of a Sed-festival (however not in Akhetaten). A representation is not enough proof, for even Akhenaten is represented felling enemies without having undertaken a single military campaign. However, although his father Amenhotep III had invited all the deities in the land to celebrate with him, Akhenaten is represented as striding from shrine to shrine, each containing only the Aten, depicted as the Sun disk with its life-giving rays. All plurality is reduced to the singular. 37

The following choices point in the same direction :

3.2 The grotesque Pharaoh, permanent dynamism & intimacy.

The colossal statues in the Gem-pa-Aten temple are the earliest evidence of a change of artistic style. Egyptologists described them often in pejorative terms : Champollion employed the term "morbidezza" or softness, Wiedemann found the representations "in a frightfully ugly form, caricature" , Wolf said the style invoked a "sick ugliness and nervous decadence" , whereas Schäfter thought that he wanted to shock with his repulsive ugliness.

"Everything that had been static, fixed in place for eternity, is now set in motion. Vertical axes become diagonal, stressed by receding foreheads and elongated crowns. (. ) movement characterized the playful, caressing intimacy of the royal family, which is depicted in lively group scenes, and the fluttering bands of cloth that dangle from clothes, crowns, and articles of furniture." - Hornung, 1999, p.44, my italics.

As soon as Pharaoh Akhenaten had changed his religion and his name, he also changed his own form and figure. In the earlier monuments, he still had retained some of the typical features of his father and his ancestors, but in Akhetaten (Tell el-'Amarna) his physical appearence totally changed too. His head was portrayed with a very high, narrow and receding forehead, with a large, sharp, aquiline nose, a weak, thin mouth and a large chin. This head was set upon a long, slender neck. Round chest, inflated stomack, large & broad thighs . in many ways resembling a woman.

"Their common denominator is a symbolic gathering of all attributes of the creator-god into the physical body of the king himself. The Aten subsumes into itself all the different gods who create and maintain the universe, and the king is the living image of the Aten on earth. He can therefore display on earth the Aten's multiple life-giving functions. These are represented through a set of signifiers that seem mutually contradictory to modern viewers, such as the appearance of female and male physical characteristics on the same statue, but made sense to the intended Egyptian audience. These attributes render the king literally superhuman, a divine body which goes beyond human experience." - Montserrat, 2001, p.48.

So-called "Amarna Art" has been compared with schools of Modern Art using a free form. Schäfter saw "expressionism" at work, as did Scharff. Montserrat (2001) doubts whether it is possible to compare Amarna with European currents and styles. Perhaps it is better to mark how it differs from the Egyptian canon ? For Hornung, this new style was a rebellion against the classical ideal of the XVIIIth dynasty. 38

hand of Akhenaten
limestone example of the innovative style of Amarna

Driven by his interest in dynamic process, Akhenaten as it were returned to the perennial idea behind the representation of the sign of "god" ("nTr" or "neter" pronounced "netjer") as a flagpole with two to four ribbons attached to the top and hence able to float in the air (representations show how, at the entrance of Akhenaten's Great Temple of the Aten at Amarna -760m long by 290m wide-, there were ten flagpoles instead of the eight of Karnak). This crucial sign acquired its definitive form as early as the Old Kingdom, starting with the IIIth Dynasty (ca. 2670 - 2600 BCE), with strips around the complete pole (like a mummy) attached by a cord with its extremity projecting outwards like a ribbon. 39 The association with movement is evident and consistent with the Heliopolitan cosmogony, focusing on the emergence of Atum out of Nun as Shu, the god of air who separated Earth and sky, and the return to the "first occurrence" ("neheh"-time or eternal recurrence). Early in his reign, Akhenaten identified with Atum and Re-Horakethy (cf. Gem-pa-Aten temple in East Karnak), but soon he avoided all associations invoking the teachings of the netherworld of Osiris and the "first time" of the autogenous Atum and Nun. Indeed, Amarna theology intends no hiddenness, darkness or inertia (cf. infra).

Earlier scenes of deities and their mythological contexts were replaced by family scenes, in which all six daughters of Akhenaten & Nefertiti appeared. Because of the life-giving force of the Aten, the love existing in this "holy family" is portrayed intimately & emphatically. The children caress one another and are tended with affection by their parents, sitting on their lap . This intimacy is exceptional and clearly innovative.

hands of statue of Akhenaten & Nefertiti
red quartzite - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin

Along with movement, we also see scenes of kissing, embracing, caressing, mourning & nursing among the royal family. They represented, with previously unthinkable freedom, the love emanating from the Aten who strove for the togetherness of his creatures. This does not mean his artists were free to do what they wanted, for more than likely Pharaoh himself established the new artistic canon. Even the size of the represented individuals did not depend any longer on their relative importance within the scene (sometimes Pharaoh is depicted as smaller than his workers !).

We may speak of "Amarna culture", for Akhenaten also elevated the spoken language of the New Kingdom into a new written language (Late Egyptian). In Late Egyptian, the verbal system (coordinating the expression of movement) changed. It replaced Middle Egyptian developed at the end of the Old Kingdom. Although Middle Egyptian remained the religious & royal language, Late Egyptian literature arose soon after Akhenaten's reign.

3.3 The singularity of divine mediation : Aten - King - Queen.

The Aten as the light of the Sun keeps the world alive. He creates the world again and again and this continually. The original creation of the world was not discussed, for Nun had to be avoided. Everlastingness (Nun, Osiris) was not the focus, but eternal recurrence (Atum, Re). The underworld, the nocturnal stride of Re, the defeat of Apopis, the bark of Re and the kingdom of Osiris were all ousted. The royal status of the Aten was promulgated with rigor, for the Aten had a royal titulary, wore an uræus and celebrated Sed-festivals !

So Akhenaten viewed the Aten, his father, as his Pharaoh. This Aten was more than just one of the deities. Never did the new god take the place of individual deities like Amun. Rather, the Aten took the place of the divine realm as a whole, with light as his "immanence", however with the exclusion of the hidden, the netherworld and the "zep tepi", the first time emerging in the Nun with the self-creation of Atum.

On the other hand, Pharaoh was co-substantially one with his father, the Aten. Previously, the title "son of Re" had been stressing the divine & filial origin of Pharaoh, but Akhenaten went further. This can be read in the Book of Gates, which may have been written during the Amarna Period.

In the 8th Hour, we read the following remarkable articulation of the co-substantial unity between Atum and Re : "I am the son who emerged from his father, I am the father who emerged from his son." 40 Both are of the "same substance" (cf. the problem of the "homo(i)ousia" of Christ and the Heavenly Father in Christian theology more than fifteen centuries later !). Between the Aten and Akhenaten, the same co-substantiality existed as between the Christian God and His unique Son Christ.

This co-substantiality implied the Aten (as father) was not accessible to anyone but to Akhenaten (as his unique son). And so, Akhenaten (as father) was the personal god of the individual (as adoptive son Akhenaten). Hence, in Amarna religion, piety was a relationship between the Aten and Pharaoh (father versus son) on the one hand, and between Pharaoh and the people on the other hand. Pharaoh set out on processions, performed signs and wonders, and intervened in the destiny of the individual. He was the Great Father of the World. A clear return to the "cannibalistic" powers Pharaoh had in the Old Kingdom.

Hence, the mystical aspect of the religious continuum, part of a proto-rational mode of thought prone to naturalization and universalization, was projected (as it was in the Old Kingdom in a mythical, pre-rational and polytheistic context) on the person of Pharaoh. Total dependence implied personal piety consisted exclusively in absolute loyalty to Pharaoh, to Akhenaten as a divine person, an ego as sole god. In the Amarna Letters, his servants were often compared with the dirt under the feet of Pharaoh, and to fall at his feet was common practice. 41

"Say to the king, my lord, my Sun, my god :
'Message of Zitriyara, your servant,
the dirt under your feet, and the mire you tread on.
It fall at the feet of the king, my lord, my Sun, my god.'
7 times and 7 times, both on the stomack and on the back."
Moran, 1992, p.283.

I n the hymn of the architects Suti and Hor, the Sun god is called "mother of humans and deities" . Akhenaten himself was often named "Nile of Egypt", embodying the annual inundation and the goods of nature. He is also called "mother who bears all". This role of the female element does not belong to the periphery, neither is it of a purely political importance. Although she was never officially co-regent, Akhenaten saw in his wife Nefertiti a goddess.

As Assmann has rightly pointed out, the Old Kingdom triad : Atum - Shu - Tefnut shines through. 42 Early in his reign Pharaoh Akhenaten wore the four-feathered crown of Shu (cf. the colossal statues at Karnak). The triad : Aten - Akhenaten - Nefertiti was represented on the stelæ of household altars and object of household cults & private devotions. In no other way was the Aten accessible to the individual. Pharaoh and his queen prayed to the Aten and the people prayed to the triad. Piety as placing a deity "in one's heart" was reserved for Akhenaten and Nefertiti.

What a reduction of the possible spiritual mediators ! Officially, all other deities were rejected. The Aten of Akhenaten was not only above them (with what is unknown revealed to his son, who had the Aten in his heart), but also and foremost against them. Furthermore, no sacred priesthood was put in place which could serve as valid replacement of the holy trinity. Only the latter could guarantee the commoners anything. And . Akhenaten probably had no sons.

It was this singularity of divine mediation which lies at the root of Akhenaten's failure to establish a religion which would last longer than his reign. Is it probable he thought the Aten would provide for a son to continue his work ? His wives only gave birth to six daughters. As a result, when Akhenaten died, there was no direct line assuring the continuity of what had been realized. The fact of the exclusivity of the Aten (returning much later as the exclusive light, path and truth of the Messiah Jesus Christ) being the theo-ontological complement of this.


Pharaonic era

The ancient Egyptian name of the smaller island is Philak, or boundary. As their southern frontier, the Pharaohs of Egypt kept there a strong garrison, and it was also a barracks for Macedonian and Roman soldiers in their turn. The first temple structure, which was built by native pharaohs of the thirtieth dynasty, was the one for Hathor.

Greco-Roman era

The island temple was built during the Ptolemaic dynasty. The principal deity of the temple complex was Isis, but other temples and shrines were dedicated to other deities such as Hathor and Harendotes. Egyptologists believe that Philae was the last active site of the native Egyptian religion, [13] and that the last Egyptian hieroglyph was written there in the late 4th century AD. [14]

The temple was closed down officially in the 6th century AD by the Byzantine emperor Justinian (527-565 AD). Philae was a seat of the Christian religion as well as of the ancient Egyptian faith. Ruins of a Christian church have been discovered, and more than one adytum bore traces of having been made to serve at different eras the purposes of a chapel of Osiris and of Christ.


The island of Philae attracted much attention in the 19th century. In the 1820s, Joseph Bonomi the Younger, a British Egyptologist and museum curator visited the island. So did Amelia Edwards, a British novelist in 1873–1874.

The approach by water is quite the most beautiful. Seen from the level of a small boat, the island, with its palms, its colonnades, its pylons, seems to rise out of the river like a mirage. Piled rocks frame it on either side, and the purple mountains close up the distance. As the boat glides nearer between glistening boulders, those sculptured towers rise higher and even higher against the sky. They show no sign of ruin or age. All looks solid, stately, perfect. One forgets for the moment that anything is changed. If a sound of antique chanting were to be borne along the quiet air–if a procession of white-robed priests bearing aloft the veiled ark of the God, were to come sweeping round between the palms and pylons–we should not think it strange.

These visits are only a small sample of the great interest that Victorian-era Britain had for Egypt. Soon, tourism to Philae became common.


Aswan Low Dam

In 1902, the Aswan Low Dam was completed on the Nile River by the British. This threatened many ancient landmarks, including the temple complex of Philae, with being submerged. The height of the dam was raised twice, from 1907–1912 and from 1929–1934, and the island of Philae was nearly always flooded. In fact, the only times that the complex was not underwater was when the dam‘s sluices were open from July to October.

It was proposed that the temples be relocated, piece by piece, to nearby islands, such as Bigeh or Elephantine. However, the temples’ foundations and other architectural supporting structures were strengthened instead. Although the buildings were physically secure, the island’s attractive vegetation and the colors of the temples’ reliefs were washed away. Also, the bricks of the Philae temples soon became encrusted with silt and other debris carried by the Nile.

Rescue project

The temples had been practically intact since the ancient days, but with each inundation the situation worsened and in the sixties the island was submerged up to a third of the buildings all year round.

In 1960 UNESCO started a project to try to save the buildings on the island from the destructive effect of the ever increasing waters of the Nile. First, building three dams and creating a separate lake with lower water levels was considered. [15]

First of all, a large coffer dam was built, constructed of two rows of steel plates between which a million cubic meters of sand was tipped. Any water that seeped through was pumped away.

Next the monuments were cleaned and measured, by using photogrammetry, a method that enables the exact reconstruction of the original size of the building blocks that were used by the ancients. Then every building was dismantled into about 40,000 units, and then transported to the nearby Island of Agilkia, situated on higher ground some 500 metres (1,600 ft) away.


“Legroing tells us : ” The city of Benin is situated in a plain surrounded by deep
ditches. Vestiges of an old earthen wall are to be seen the wall could hardly have
been built of any other material as we did not see a single stone in the whole journey
up. The houses for the most part are covered with latanier leaves, and those of
the king with large shingles. In front of the king’s houses there were two thick
clumps of high trees, and these appeared to us to be the only trees planted by the
hand of man (Labarthe, p. 175).”

From Landolphe we learn that a ” ditch more than
20 feet wide and as deep surrounds the town, and the soil taken out is made on the
city side into a talus, on which a thorny hedge has been planted so thick, that not
even an animal can get through. The height of this talus deprives one of a view of
the houses at a distance, and one does not see them until entering the town, the gates
of which are very far apart ” (II., 48).

” The streets are very broad in the middle
there is turf on which the kids and sheep feed about thirty feet from the houses
there is a level road, covered with sand for the inhabitants to walk on ” [ibid, II., 50).
He also mentions several spacious courts surrounded by earthen walls about sixteen
feet high. Along the inside of the walls there ran a gallery fifteen feet wide, thatched

with natanier. The thatching is done by overlapping the leaves which not
being pulled apart, fall one on top of another to a thickness of eighteen inches.

This roof is supported by large pieces of timber cut into the shape of pillars. They
are set up about eighteen feet apart, and carry stout horizontal planks on which
abut the sloping joists which carry the roof, which was an ingenious piece of work “
(ibid, I., 111-112). Of the apartments of the king’s wives he says the walls are twenty
feet high and five feet thick, solidly built of earth [ibid, I., 335).”

Other work

She was appointed an honorary United Nations youth ambassador in 2003 at a ceremony in Maputo, in recognition of her outstanding athletic achievements. Other youth ambassadors are musician Baaba Maal and basketball star Dikembe Mutombo. She cited the importance of raising awareness of HIV/AIDS issues amongst young people in Africa and also highlighted the benefits that sport can bring to young people. Indeed, her Lurdes Mutola Foundation aims to bring more young Mozambicans to sport and to assist in helping them achieve their sporting and educational potential. Other initiatives that Mutola and her Foundation have been involved in include a Ministry of Health / UNICEF immunisation campaign against measles and polio and housing development initiatives in Maputo. Even before the establishment of the Foundation, she had played an active role in supporting sport in Maputo. She gave financial support that allowed an artificial track to be constructed on the sports ground at which she had originally trained as a fifteen-year old.

She also authorised the sale of t-shirts that featured her image, profits from which went towards helping the Grupo Desportivo de Maputo out of financial difficulty.

At the 2006 Winter Olympics she was one of the eight Olympic flag bearers at the Opening Ceremony.

Watch the video: Queen Tiye: True Colors -Tribute to the Egyptian Queen 2018 NEW INFO