Edward Braddock (1695-1755)

Edward Braddock (1695-1755)

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Edward Braddock

An experienced soldier, Braddock had been in the army since 1710, seeing much service during the War of the Austrian Succession, before being appointed commander in chief in North America in 1755 during the French and Indian War. His first action in America was an attack on Fort Duquesne (modern Pittsburgh) as part of a larger, four pronged attack on the French. Braddock's column of some 1,500 soldiers was ambushed by a force of French and Indians only 900 strong (Battle of the Monongahela, 9 July 1755), in which Braddock was killed along with half of his troops. The escape of the survivors was greatly helped by the young George Washington.

Books on the Seven Years's War |Subject Index: Seven Years' War

The town is named for General Edward Braddock (1695–1755), commander of American colonial forces at the start of the French and Indian War. [3] The Braddock Expedition to capture Fort Duquesne (modern day Pittsburgh) from the French led to the British general's own fatal wounding and a sound defeat of his troops after crossing the Monongahela River on July 9, 1755. This battle, now called the Battle of the Monongahela, was a key event at the beginning of the French and Indian War.

The area surrounding Braddock's Field was originally inhabited by the Lenape, ruled by Queen Alliquippa. [4] In 1742, John Fraser and his family established the area at the mouth of Turtle Creek as the first permanent English settlement west of the Allegheny Mountains. [4] George Washington visited the area in 1753-1754. It was the site of Braddock's Defeat on July 9, 1755.

Braddock's first industrial facility, a barrel plant, opened in 1850. [4] The borough was incorporated on June 8, 1867. [5] The town's industrial economy began in 1873, when Andrew Carnegie built the Edgar Thomson Steel Works on the historic site of Braddock's Field in what is now North Braddock, Pennsylvania. This was one of the first American steel mills which used the Bessemer process. As of 2010, it continues operation as a part of the United States Steel Corporation. This era of the town's history is depicted in Thomas Bell's novel Out of This Furnace.

Braddock is also the location of the first of Andrew Carnegie's 1,679 (some sources list 1,689) public libraries in the US, designed by William Halsey Wood of Newark, New Jersey, and dedicated on March 30, 1889. The Braddock Library included a tunnel entrance for Carnegie's millworkers to enter a bathhouse in the basement to clean up before entering the facilities (which originally included billiard tables). An addition in 1893, by Longfellow, Alden and Harlow (Boston & Pittsburgh, successors to Henry Hobson Richardson), added a swimming pool, indoor basketball court, and 964-seat music hall that included a Votey pipe organ. The building was rescued from demolition in 1978 by the Braddock's Field Historical Society, and is still in use as a public library. The bathhouse has recently been converted to a pottery studio the music hall is currently under restoration.

During the early 1900s many immigrants settled in Braddock, primarily from Croatia, Slovenia, and Hungary.

Braddock lost its importance with the collapse of the steel industry in the United States in the 1970s and 1980s. This coincided with the crack cocaine epidemic of the early 1980s, and the combination of the two woes nearly destroyed the community. In 1988, Braddock was designated a financially distressed municipality. The entire water distribution system was rebuilt in 1990-1991 at a cost of $4.7 million, resulting in a fine system where only 5% of piped water is deemed "unaccounted-for." [ citation needed ] . From its peak in the 1920s, Braddock has since lost 90% of its population. [4]

John Fetterman, mayor of Braddock from 2005 until his 2019 inauguration as Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania, launched a campaign to attract new residents to the area from the artistic and creative communities. [4] He also initiated various revitalization efforts, including the nonprofit organization Braddock Redux. [6]

Fetterman appeared in various media to discuss his vision of Braddock's needs, including PBS, [7] The Colbert Report on Comedy Central, [8] CNN, Fox News, CNBC, and The New York Times. [9] In the UK, The Guardian [10] and the BBC have reported on him. [11] He has also had his own episode on Hulu's original series A Day in the Life. [12]

Since 1974, Braddock resident Tony Buba has made many films. One of his earlier films is Justice League centering on the borough and its industrial decline, including Struggles in Steel. [13] In September 2010, the IFC and Sundance television channels showed the film Ready to Work: Portraits of Braddock, produced by the Levi Strauss corporation. This film interviews many of the local residents and shows their efforts to revitalize the town. [14]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.6 square miles (1.6 km 2 ), of which, 0.6 square miles (1.6 km 2 ) is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km 2 ) (13.85%) is water. Its average elevation is 764 ft (233 m) above sea level. [15]

Braddock has two land borders, with North Braddock from the north to the southeast, and Rankin to the northwest. Across the Monongahela River to the south, Braddock is adjacent to Whitaker and West Mifflin.

Maj. Gen. Edward Braddock

By coach and six horses purchased from Gov. Horatio Sharpe of Maryland. Braddock traveled this route west in April, 1755. After 10-day meeting in Frederick with Benjamin Franklin and others to arrange for teams, wagons and supplies for the expedition against the French at Fort Duquesne. Braddock was mortally wounded 7 miles from that fort (now Pittsburgh) on July 9, 1755.

Erected by The Society of Colonial Wars and the Maryland Historical Society.

Topics. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Colonial Era &bull War, French and Indian. A significant historical month for this entry is April 1755.

Location. 39° 24.995′ N, 77° 26.369′ W. Marker is in Frederick, Maryland, in Frederick County. Marker is on West Patrick Street (U.S. 40), on the right when traveling west. Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 1001 West Patrick Street, Frederick MD 21702, United States of America. Touch for directions.

Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within one mile of this marker, measured as the crow flies. Battle of Frederick (about 600 feet away, measured in a direct line) Schifferstadt (approx. 0.8 miles away) Schifferstadt Architectural Museum (approx. 0.8 miles away) Lloyd C. Culler (approx. 0.9 miles away) Gettysburg Campaign (approx. 0.9 miles away) Major General George Gordon Meade

Advances toward Fort Duquesne

Forbes was promoted to the rank of brigadier general and given command of a major military operation against Fort Duquesne. This French fort was located at a strategic spot known as the Forks of the Ohio, where the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers joined to form the Ohio River. Both the British and the French considered the Forks so important that the first battles of the war had been fought there. In 1755, British Army forces under General Edward Braddock (1695-1755 see entry) had marched from Virginia to the Ohio Country in order to attack Fort Duquesne. But they ran into an ambush as they crossed the Monongahela River and were badly defeated by the French and their Indian allies.

Forbes launched his own expedition against Fort Duquesne in the spring of 1758. His army consisted of forty-eight hundred American colonists and fifteen hundred British Army soldiers. One of his field commanders was George Washington (1732-1799 see entry), who had first visited the Forks of the Ohio on a diplomatic mission in 1753, and had witnessed Braddock's defeat there in 1755. Rather than follow Braddock's route through Virginia, Forbes decided to carve a new road through the wilderness of western Pennsylvania. His forces made a slow, careful advance toward the fort. They cleared a path through woods and over mountains, and they built supply depots along the way to help them hold the fort once they had captured it. Forbes also spent a great deal of time and effort talking with the Indians of the Ohio Country and giving them gifts to gain their support. Unlike Braddock, he understood the importance of having Indian allies, and tried to lure them away from the French.

Forbes overcame many obstacles on the way to Fort Duquesne. For example, he had to convince settlers along the Pennsylvania frontier to provide supplies for his troops, and he had to settle frequent arguments between his British officers and his colonial troops. But the most difficult situation he had to face was his own poor health. Forbes suffered from a painful skin condition that made it difficult for him to move, and he also caught a serious intestinal illness called dysentery. By September, the only way for him to advance with his troops was by riding in a hammock strung between two horses. Although the general was in tremendous pain, he managed to keep his forces together and inspired them with his courage and wit.

Braddock Stone

The Braddock Stone, an early colonial highway marker, is named for British General Edward Braddock (1695�). During the early stages of the French and Indian War, General Braddock was dispatched to expel French forces from what is today southwestern Pennsylvania. An advance party of 600 British and colonial forces cleared and widened the old Indian trail laid out by Thomas Cresap and the Indian guide Nemacolin. General Braddock's main force of 1500 troops, including George Washington, followed with their wagons and armaments. The troops marched from Virginia through Western Maryland toward Fort Duquesne, just south of present day Pittsburgh. Before reaching the Fort, the French and their Indian companions launched a surprise attack against Braddock's forces. Although General Braddock was killed during the attack, George Washington led the survivors back to Fort Cumberland along the route now known as Braddock's Road. The Braddock stone provided travel distances to colonial settlers passing along the trail. The exact date and original location of the Braddock Stone are not known, however, records show that the marker was always very close to the Braddock Road as it passed through Frostburg. Beginning in about the 1890s, we know it resided in a field off Midlothian Road, overlooking what is now Frostburg State University.

is the stone cut in half?
According to local legend, the DAR had plans to construct a pavilion to protect the Braddock Stone, but when they went to erect the structure, they discovered that the stone was missing! A local stonemason had taken the stone, cleaved it in half and used the pieces for steps to a building. After a lengthy search, the police located the stone and forced the stonemason to make repairs and return it to its previous location.

(Image of Braddock Stone with text reading "Mile Stone supposed to have been erected by Gen. Braddock".)
Photo from a John Kennedy Lacock article circa 1912 from the local paper.
(Image of shelter over Braddock Stone.)
Photo Courtesy of: The Frostburg Museum Collection, circa 1891-1898.
(Image of Braddock Stone with text reading "Milestone erected by Gen. Braddock", "Braddocks Rock Frostburg, MD" and "Emerson H. Miller Collection".)
Photo Courtesy of: Robert Bantz, Sr. Collection, undated.

Topics. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Colonial Era &bull Roads & Vehicles &bull War, French and Indian. A significant historical date for this entry is July 13, 1755.

Location. 39° 39.418′ N, 78° 55.641′ W. Marker is in Frostburg, Maryland, in Allegany County. Marker is on East Main Street, on the right. The marker is located on the north side of

East Main Street. It is halfway between Uhl Street and Welsh Street in front of the brick St. Michael Catholic Church, near an outdoor exhibit of the Braddock Stone. Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 44 East Main Street, Frostburg MD 21532, United States of America. Touch for directions.

Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Frost Graves (here, next to this marker) Frostburg (a few steps from this marker) a different marker also named Frostburg (about 600 feet away, measured in a direct line) The Naming of Frostburg (approx. 0.2 miles away) Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad Depot (approx. 0.2 miles away) Frost Hall (approx. 0.3 miles away) Old Main (approx. 0.3 miles away) a different marker also named Old Main (approx. 0.3 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Frostburg.

General Edward Braddock, 1695 – 1755

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Edward Braddock (1695-1755) - History

Edward Braddock was born in Scotland in January of 1895. At the age of 15 he began his military career. He came to America in 1755 and was commanded to rid the French from Fort Duquesne (now Pittsburgh). He led a column of 1,850 men westerward including a young George Washington and later frontiersman Daniel Boone.

After arriving at Fort Cumberland in Maryland, Braddock's army blazed a military road using previous trails as their guide. This new road would be known as Braddock's Road.

On July 8, 1755, Braddock's soldiers encountered fierce opposition of French and Indian fighters and Braddock was mortally wounded. He was carried in a wagon but he died along the way to Fort Cumberland. He was buried in the middle of the road his men had blazed in an attempt to hide his body. George Washington presided the funeral service. In 1804, roadbuilders discovered Braddock's remains and reinterred them on a small knoll above the old roadbed.

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Expeditions and settlement

In 1767 Boone led his first expedition as far westward as the area of Floyd County, Kentucky. In 1769, with Finley and four others, he cleared a trail through the Cumberland

Boone became the leader of the Kentucky settlement, as hunter, surveyor (a person who measures and plots land), and Indian fighter. When Kentucky became a county of Virginia, he was given the rank of major in the militia. Boone's misfortunes began in July 1776, when his daughter was captured by Shawnee and Cherokee tribespeople. He was able to rescue her but two years later was himself captured by the Shawnee. Though he escaped and helped defend Boonesborough against Indian raiders, while on his way east he was robbed of money other settlers had given him to buy land. He was forced to repay the angry settlers. From this time on, Boone was followed by debts and lawsuits.

Edward Braddock

Major General Edward Braddock (1695 – 1755) was a British officer and commander-in-chief for the Thirteen Colonies during the actions at the start of the French and Indian War (1754 – 1763), which is also known in Europe and Canada as the Seven Years&apos War (1756 – 1763). He is generally best remembered for his command of a disastrous expedition against the French-occupied Ohio River Valley in 1755, in which he lost his life.

He was the son of Major-General Edward Braddock of the Coldstream Guards and followed his father into the army. He was appointed ensign in his father&aposs regiment in 1710 and promoted to lieutenant of the grenadier company in 1716. He was promoted to captain in 1736. He made major in 1743, and was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the regiment in 1745.

He participated in the Siege of Bergen op Zoom in 1747. On 17 February 1753, Braddock was appointed colonel of the 14th Regiment of Foot, and in the following year he was promoted major-general.&hellipmore

[close] Major General Edward Braddock (1695 – 1755) was a British officer and commander-in-chief for the Thirteen Colonies during the actions at the start of the French and Indian War (1754 – 1763), which is also known in Europe and Canada as the Seven Years' War (1756 – 1763). He is generally best remembered for his command of a disastrous expedition against the French-occupied Ohio River Valley in 1755, in which he lost his life.

He was the son of Major-General Edward Braddock of the Coldstream Guards and followed his father into the army. He was appointed ensign in his father's regiment in 1710 and promoted to lieutenant of the grenadier company in 1716. He was promoted to captain in 1736. He made major in 1743, and was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the regiment in 1745.

He participated in the Siege of Bergen op Zoom in 1747. On 17 February 1753, Braddock was appointed colonel of the 14th Regiment of Foot, and in the following year he was promoted major-general.

From Robert Orme

The General1 having been informd that you exprest some desire to make the Campaigne, but that you declind it upon some disagreeableness that you thought might arise from the Regulation of Command,2 has orderd me to acquaint you that he will be very glad of your Company in his Family, by which all inconveniences of that kind will be obviated.3

I shall think myself very happy to form an acquaintance with a person so universally esteem’d4 and shall use every oppertunity of assuring you how much I am Sir Your most Obedt Servant &[ca.]

Capt. Robert Orme (d. 1790) of the Coldstream Guards was principal aide-de-camp to Maj. Gen. Edward Braddock, the recently appointed commander in chief of the king’s forces in North America. Selected as aide by Braddock sometime during the fall of 1754, Orme took leave from his regiment and sailed from England with the general in late December. They landed at Hampton, Va., on 20 Feb. 1755. Three days later they went to Williamsburg to confer with Dinwiddie about plans for driving the French from the Ohio Valley and to await the arrival from Ireland of the 44th and 48th regiments of foot. Orme began his military career as an ensign in the 35th Regiment of Foot. He transferred to the Coldstream Guards in 1745 when Braddock was one of the regiment’s senior officers and was promoted to lieutenant in 1751. There is no record of his obtaining a Coldstream captaincy. It is probable that he was brevetted a captain by Braddock upon becoming the general’s aide. Handsome, intelligent, and charming when occasion demanded, Orme was generally acknowledged to have great influence over Braddock, with whom he was always a favorite. Some officers, especially senior ones, resented his ascendancy, regarding him as an overbearingly ambitious and arrogant upstart, while many others were strongly attracted to him. “I have a very great Love for my Friend Orme,” Braddock’s secretary William Shirley, Jr., wrote in a confidential letter during the campaign, “and think it uncommonly fortunate for our Leader that he is under the Influence of so honest and capable a Man, but I wish for the Sake of the Publick he had some more Experience of Business, particularly in America” (Shirley to Robert H. Morris, 23 May 1755, Pa. Arch., Col. Rec. description begins Colonial Records of Pennsylvania . 16 vols. Harrisburg, 1840–53. description ends , 6:404–6).

1 . Edward Braddock (c.1695–1755) spent much of his long military career before coming to America on the parade field or in garrison. Son of an undistinguished major general, he entered his father’s regiment, the Coldstream Guards, as an ensign in 1710 and advanced slowly over the next 35 years to lieutenant colonel. In the War of Austrian Succession he had little opportunity to distinguish himself, but his career soon took a dramatic turn upward. In early 1753 he left the Coldstream Guards, where his way to further promotion was blocked, to take the colonelcy of the 14th Regiment of Foot stationed at Gibraltar. In April 1754 he became a major general and in September was called from Gibraltar to assume the North American command. Although lacking in battle experience, he was a good disciplinarian and a skilled administrator, and he was universally esteemed a brave and honest officer.

2 . The king’s order of 12 Nov. 1754 for settling questions of rank and command between regular and provincial officers apparently reached Virginia with Braddock’s quartermaster, Sir John St. Clair, on 9 Jan. 1755. Although somewhat confused in wording, it clearly confirmed most of the apprehensions about rank that had plagued GW during the past year. Under no circumstances could he as a Virginia colonel, even if he should regain that position with full powers, be on an absolutely equal footing with any regular colonel, lieutenant colonel, or major. General and field officers commissioned by colonial officials, the king declared, “shall have no rank with” the general and field officers bearing his commission, and all regular captains, lieutenants, and ensigns “are . . . to command and take Post of . . . Provincial Officers of like Rank” when serving with them on detachments, court martials, and other assignments. No particular mention was made of the relationship of provincial general and field officers to regular company officers, apparently because it was presumed that the senior colonial officers would “only have the Inspection, & Direction, of their Provincial Corps” (“Sketch of Regulations & Orders,” Nov. 1754 in Pargellis, Military Affairs in North America description begins Stanley Pargellis, ed. Military Affairs in North America, 1748–1765: Selected Documents from the Cumberland Papers in Windsor Castle . 1936. Reprint. Hamden, Conn., 1969. description ends , 36). A printed copy of the king’s order on rank, endorsed by GW, is in DLC:GW , but it is not known when or how GW obtained it.

3 . For the advantages that GW could expect from serving Braddock as one of his aides-de-camp, see GW to John Augustine Washington, 14 May 1755.

4 . GW and Orme came to like and admire one another during the campaign. See especially Orme to GW, 10 Nov. 1755.

Watch the video: Braddocks Defeat: The Battle of the Monongahela and the Road to Revolution by Dr. David Preston